Lect_3_notes - Fatty acids—carboxylate plus ~18-22...

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Bio 1A Lecture 3 January 28, 2008 Professor Schlissel Biological Polymers 1. Review of basic chemistry. Chemical interactions: covalent, ionic, “weak”, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic. Polar compounds or groups. Water and its unique properties. 2. Review functional groups from Organic Chemistry, e.g., aldehyde, ketone, carboxylate, amino, ester, etc. 3. The majority of macromolecules in cells consist of polymers of simple subunits. These include proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. Lipids, while not true polymers, share some of their characteristics. 4. Carbohydrates. Functions—energy; structure; molecular recognition, intracellular trafficking Structure—C n H 2n O n ; aldoses, ketoses; mono- di- and poly- saccharides, linear and ring forms; stereoisomers; derivatives. Disaccharides, glycosidic bonds. Polysaccharides—cellulose, starch, glycogen. Branching. 5. Fatty acids, lipids, and other hydrocarbons. Functions—energy storage; biological membranes; hormones; co-factors
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Unformatted text preview: Fatty acids—carboxylate plus ~18-22 carbons. Saturated or unsaturated. Cis vs trans fats; health implications. Triglycerides—Three fatty acids bound via ester linkages to glycerol. Used to store energy, provide insulation. Phospholipids—Glycerol with two fatty acids and a polar head group. Spontaneously forms micelles in water due to hydrophobic effects . Basis of cell membranes. Differences between saturated and unsaturated FA’s. Other kinds of lipids—glycolipids Steroids—Hydrocarbons with three 6-membered rings and one 5-member ring with hydrocarbon tail. Cholesterol serves as precursor for steroid hormones, bile salts, enzyme co-factors. Also affects membrane structure and function. Bacteria don’t have these in their membranes. LDL, HDL, chylomicrons—storage particles for transport of lipids; phospholipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, proteins. Cholesterol and heart disease....
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