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Lecture 11 Notes Professor Schlissel Bio 1A Feb 15, 2008 Metabolism II: Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation 1. Structure of the mitochondrion—double membrane, intermembrane space, matrix 2. The pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) reaction sends an acetyl group from glycolysis into the Citric Acid Cycle within the mitochondrial matrix. Uses carrier molecule called Co-Enzyme A. 3. Krebs cycle = citric acid cycle = TCA cycle. Acetyl group gets broken down into two CO2 molecules generating reduced NADH, FADH2, and ATP. 4. Regulation—negative feedback by ATP, acetyl-CoA, and NADH at PDH step 5. Integration—Citric acid cycle intermediates are siphoned off to make various amino acids, fatty acids, steroids, etc. Also, other catabolic pathways feed in to this cycle. 6. Redox reaction. Energy of electrons. Role of NADH as electron carrier. 7. Electron transport—gradual release of energy as electrons get transferred from protein
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Unformatted text preview: complex to protein complex embedded in inner mitochondrial membrane. Results in transfer of protons (H+) across the membrane setting up a gradient. 8. Chemiosmosis—the coupling of electron transport chain to ATP synthesis through the use of an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Decay of this gradient drives the enzyme ATP synthase which converts ADP + Pi into ATP within the mitochondrial matrix. 9. Energy yields—Maximum from glucose = ~38 ATP. Each NADH allows electron transport to make 3 ATP; each FADH2 yields 2 ATP. 10. What happens if there is insufficient O2 to serve as the ultimate electron acceptor? Anaerobic metabolism generates Lactic acid or ethanol. 11. Leptin—a hormone secreted by fat cells which influences eating behavior....
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