Ventilator Bundle for VAP Prevention Allison Karol Walden University NURS 6501 Transforming Nursing and Healthcare Through Technology September 14, 2019
Introduction Ventilator acquired pneumonia is a life-threatening and the second most common hospital acquired nosocomial infection in critically ill patients. Ventilator acquired pneumonia or VAP is defined as a lung infection that occurs forty-eight hours post intubation (AACN, 2017). There are many diagnostic, treatment, and prevention options for VAP however mortality rates continue to rise. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how to prevent VAP in critically ill patients and introduce new measures to lower statistics of acquiring VAP in the critical care setting. There are many methods in place to prevent critically ill patient from acquiring pneumonia after being on a ventilator. Current methods at Putnam Community Medical Center are not working to minimize infections rates, as the statistics continue to rise, and patients are getting VAP more and more each month. With the assistance and collaboration of physicians, critical care nursing staff, respiratory therapists, infection control nurses, informatics team, and quality management we can better manage and prevent VAP with the use of a ventilator bundle. Background Ventilator acquired pneumonia increases hospital stays of an average of eight days, increases mortality rates, and can increase cost anywhere between forty and sixty thousand dollars (Malouf-Todaro, Barker, and Tipton, 2013). Mortality rates related to VAP were reported to be significantly higher compared to other critically ill patients. Patients who acquire pneumonia after being on a ventilator have a 46% mortality rate compared to the 32% mortality rate for other ventilated patients without VAP (Malouf-Todaro, et al, 2013). Common causes of VAP include bacteria such as aerobic Enterobacteriaceae, staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas aeruginosa, haemophilus influenza, and streptococci (Timsit, et al, 2017). There are many different risk factors that contribute to ventilated patients getting pneumonia. A major risk factor
is aspiration, whether it be from secretions or gastric contents. Once an endotracheal tube is introduced into the lungs the body is left defenseless without its’ natural cough reflex to protect the lungs from invasive pathogens (O’keefe-McCarthy, 2006).
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