Running head: VENTILATOR ASSOCIATED PNEUMONIA 1 Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Ana Eastman, Megan Slater, Michelle Martinez, Kory Busby, and Sonali Patel Maryville University NURS-619 Leadership April 27, 2019 Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is known to healthcare providers as one of the
VENTILATOR ASSOCIATED PNEUMONIA 2 most common hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) and consequently, the leading cause of death in the critically-ill patient once a HAI is contracted (CDC, 2019a). As we continue to gain a better understanding of the implications VAP has within the clinical setting, it is essential that healthcare providers further explore appropriate measures to ensure its prevention. For the purpose of this paper, a collective, thorough, and collaborative review was performed to further investigate ventilator-associated pneumonia along with facility-specific data collection while integrating current literature to support the findings. Note from the authors When researching ventilator-acquired pneumonia, it was noted that the bulk of the research on VAP was conducted during the years 2012 through 2013. Many important standards for VAP were set during that time, and because of that, most current studies and guidelines reference research from those dates. Although the bulk of definitive data results were found between these years, continued research is performed to better understand the incidences, risks, and associated factors of VAP. The importance of using primary research for this paper was considered when choosing sources for information. Because of this, some references used for this paper are greater than five years old. Define the Problem Understanding the Problem Exists Ventilator-acquired pneumonia, or VAP, is an infection that develops in the lungs after a patient has received mechanical ventilation for greater than forty-eight hours (CDC, 2019a). A ventilator refers to any type of artificial airway that delivers positive end expiratory pressure, or PEEP (CDC, 2019b). According to the Centers for Disease Control, or CDC, (2019a), there is no consistent definition of VAP and even in the most recent protocols and algorithms, the definitions
VENTILATOR ASSOCIATED PNEUMONIA 3 are often vague and non-specific. Because of the difficulty in diagnosing VAP with ambiguous and subjective definitions, the National Health and Safety Network (NHSN) determined that ventilator-associated pneumonia should be classified with other ventilator-associated events or VAE’s (CDC, 2019b). VAE is defined by the CDC (2019b) as “deterioration in respiratory status after a period of stability or improvement on the ventilator, evidence of infection or inflammation, and laboratory evidence of respiratory infection” (CDC, 2019b, 10-3).
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