Inner and other directed personality types In 1950, David Riesman , along with Nathan Glazer and Reuel Denney published a sociological analysis, The Lonely Crowd. It asserted that the prevailing social character of Americans had changed dramatically since the nineteenth century in response to changing demographics and the emergence of a service-and consumption-based economy. The inner-directed and the other-directed personality types are two of the three different character types that the book identified and analyzed. The inner-directed personality type is the group that is self-reliant and purposeful and was able to navigate through a changing world by relying upon the firm principles implanted by parents. Inner-directed people live as adults what they learned in childhood, and tend to be confident, sometimes rigid. They behave according to this “internal piloting” and often sense feelings of guilt, rather than shame, if their behaviors shift from these parent-instilled values. They discovered the potential within themselves to live and
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