GeoSci 201-Final Exam Study Guide

GeoSci 201-Final Exam Study Guide - Final Review...

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Final Review - Introduction 1. Introduction and Maps (Chapter 1, Appendices A, F) Earth System Solid Earth-Plate tectonics Hydrosphere-currents, climate Atmosphere-hydrolic cycle, clouds, climate zones Biosphere-influences climate Latitude Horizontal (E&W) Measures distance from horizon to north star Measures how far from equator Longitude Vertical (N&S) Measured based on time (difference in time when sun is at zenith) Time Zones Vertical Projection Mercator Map - Artificially magnifies polar regions but compass directions are straight - Commonly used because direction is accurate Peters Map - Disorts but better representation of areas of continents - Earth in the Universe 2. Origin of the Earth (Chapter 1) The Big Bang Birth of the universe—expanded from a point of energy Evidence - Cosmic background radiation left over - Hubble radiation left over Elements created - Helium - Hydrogen - Lithium Nucleosynthesis Formation of elements by nuclear fusion Requires extreme temperatures - Stars are the only place to form elements Sun releases energy through formation of elements - Sun only synthesizes Helium Accretion Growth of planets through gathering of more and more bits of solid matter from surrounding space Violent process of collision Circumstellar Disks
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- Birthplace of planets - Form while stars are forming - Much cooler - Made of gas and dust - Once large enough, gravitational force pulls in more gas and dust Orbits Heliocentric system (Copernicus) Kepler’s Laws - Elliptical orbit (closer and farther to sun at different times—explains ice ages) - Equal areas in equal times - Orbital harmony (Newton proved sun is off center) 3. The Sun (Chapter 2) Origin and history Average sized star More than 4.5 billion years old Mid-life—increasing intensity with time (Faint young paradox-not warm enough for life 25% dimmer) Internal Structure Layered Source of energy - Nuclear fusion in core (hot, high pressure) Transport of energy - Radiation (from core) - Convection (from top to bottom) Nature of Sunlight Magnitude: amount produced by sun Power: rate (watts) Flux: power per area (watts/ sq meter) Insolation Cycles Rotation: day/night Tilt of rotation axis: seasons Revolution: years Solar constant=1370 watts/sq meter - The Solid Earth 4. Dynamic Earth 1 (Chapter 4) History of Ideas Plate Tectonic Basics Geography and Plate Tectonics 5. Dynamic Earth 2 (Chapter 5) Earthquakes Volcanoes 6. Dynamic Earth 3 (Chapter 7)
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Earth’s Interior Xenoliths Seismology Internal Energy Sources and Transport 7. Earth Materials 1 (Chapter 6) Elements: Earth Composition Structure Bonding Minerals Rocks 8. Earth Materials 2 (Chapter 6) Rock Cycle Weathering Erosion 9. Soils (Chapter 6) Definition Formation Profile O A E B C Unparented Types Erosion 10. Age of the Earth (Chapter 8) History of Ideas Principles of Geology superposition: age progression (younger sediments on top) correlation:
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