GeoSci 201-Final Exam Study Guide

GeoSci 201-Final Exam Study Guide - Final Review -...

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Final Review - Introduction 1. Introduction and Maps (Chapter 1, Appendices A, F) Earth System Solid Earth-Plate tectonics Hydrosphere-currents, climate Atmosphere-hydrolic cycle, clouds, climate zones Biosphere-influences climate Latitude Measures distance from horizon to north star Measures how far from equator Longitude Measured based on time (difference in time when sun is at zenith) Time Zones Vertical Projection Mercator Map - Artificially magnifies polar regions but compass directions are straight - Commonly used because direction is accurate Peters Map - Disorts but better representation of areas of continents - Earth in the Universe 2. Origin of the Earth (Chapter 1) The Big Bang Birth of the universe—expanded from a point of energy Evidence - Cosmic background radiation left over - Hubble radiation left over Elements created - Helium - Hydrogen - Lithium Nucleosynthesis Formation of elements by nuclear fusion Requires extreme temperatures - Stars are the only place to form elements Sun releases energy through formation of elements - Sun only synthesizes Helium Accretion Growth of planets through gathering of more and more bits of solid matter from surrounding space Violent process of collision Circumstellar Disks
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- Birthplace of planets - Form while stars are forming - Much cooler - Made of gas and dust - Once large enough, gravitational force pulls in more gas and dust Orbits Heliocentric system (Copernicus) Kepler’s Laws - Elliptical orbit (closer and farther to sun at different times—explains ice ages) - Equal areas in equal times - Orbital harmony (Newton proved sun is off center) 3. The Sun (Chapter 2) Origin and history Average sized star More than 4.5 billion years old Mid-life—increasing intensity with time (Faint young paradox-not warm enough for life 25% dimmer) Internal Structure Layered Source of energy - Nuclear fusion in core (hot, high pressure) Transport of energy - Radiation (from core) - Convection (from top to bottom) Nature of Sunlight Magnitude: amount produced by sun Power: rate (watts) Flux: power per area (watts/ sq meter) Insolation Cycles Rotation: day/night Tilt of rotation axis: seasons Revolution: years Solar constant=1370 watts/sq meter - The Solid Earth 4. Dynamic Earth 1 (Chapter 4) History of Ideas Plate Tectonic Basics Geography and Plate Tectonics 5. Dynamic Earth 2 (Chapter 5) Earthquakes Volcanoes 6. Dynamic Earth 3 (Chapter 7)
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Earth’s Interior Xenoliths Seismology Internal Energy Sources and Transport 7. Earth Materials 1 (Chapter 6) Elements: Earth Composition Structure Bonding Minerals Rocks 8. Earth Materials 2 (Chapter 6) Rock Cycle Weathering Erosion 9. Soils (Chapter 6) Definition Formation Profile O A E B C Unparented Types Erosion 10. Age of the Earth (Chapter 8) History of Ideas Principles of Geology superposition: age progression (younger sediments on top)
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This note was uploaded on 04/01/2008 for the course GEOSCI 201 taught by Professor Stixrude during the Winter '06 term at University of Michigan.

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GeoSci 201-Final Exam Study Guide - Final Review -...

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