Running head: EPIDENIOLOGICAL PROBLEM1Evaluation of Epidemiological Problem Katharine TariqChamberlain College of NursingPopulation Health, Epidemiology, & Statistical Principles: NR5063September 2018
EPIDENIOLOGICAL PROBLEM2Evaluation of Epidemiological Problem In the United States of America, over 100 million people are effected with diabetes. In my state, California 2.3 million people have diabetes this means one out of every six Californian’s have diabetes (California Department of Public Health, 2018). Diabetes must be controlled or it can have serious consequences. Diabetes is cause by genitic factors, obesity and poor diet. Some people are at higher risk of the disease due to race, and economic and educational status. Those who are pre-disposed to getting diabetes need early screening, education in diet and life style changes to help them reduce their risk. This paper will discuss the background and significance of diabetes, signs and symptoms,statistical information on the chosen geographical location, current surveillance methods, and how diabetes is diagnosed. The paper will conclude with a plan of action to address on the treatment and outcomes for patients with diabetes in my practice after graduation.Background and Significance Definition and Description of Diabetes Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of the endocrine system that is characterized by high levelsof glucose in the blood due to either an insulin deficiency or resistance to insulin (Scub , 2018). Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas. The pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream to reduce blood glucose. The insulin is then circulated through the liver, adipose tissue, and the muscles ( Scub, 2018). Often, there are no sign andsymptoms of diabetes. When symptoms do occur, they include excessive thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, weight loss, or blurred vision, increased blood glucose, increased A1C (Center for Disease Control, 2108). There are three types of diabetes: type one, type two, and gestational diabetes. All forms of diabetes must be managed appropriately, if not then serious consequences will occur in the form
EPIDENIOLOGICAL PROBLEM 3of secondary diseases. Complications of diabetes are heart disease, kidney disease, vascular disease, retinopathy, neuropathy, strokes and even Alzheimer's disease and much more.Type one diabetes usually occurs during childhood or adolescent years; however, it can occur at any age. Type 1 diabetes, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes, is an autoimmune disorder that destroys insulin producing beta cells within the pancreas ( Cabrera & Parks- Chapman, 2018). This destruction is provoked by an aggregate of immunologic, genetic, or infectious factors (Cabrera & Parks- Chapman, 2018). The only way to stop this process is to administer insulin subcutaneously via injection or and insulin pump (Cabrera & Parks- Chapman, 2018).