States of the nafs.pdf - States of the nafs within the Qurʾān There are a number of categories or states that the nafs experiences which the Qurʾān

States of the nafs.pdf - States of the nafs within the...

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States of the nafs within the Qur ʾā n There are a number of categories or states that the nafs experiences, which the Qur ʾā n has also elucidated. Each individual experiences these states as a result of their intentions, thoughts, motives, deeds and will, and consequently it is appropriate at this juncture to shed light on these states of the nafs . There are three types of nafs described. a. The soul inclined to evil ( al-nafs al-amm ā ra ) This state of the nafs occurs when the human being is overcome by his desires, to the extent that he pursues the appetites of his soul, to the exclusion of everything else. The performance of forbidden acts is common to this state, and the ultimate result is sin and transgression. The lowest level of the human soul not only encourages the performance of evil but also exerts effort to make such actions acceptable and appealing. As such, al-Jurjani defined the al-nafs al-ammara as follows: ‘It is the one [ nafs] that inclines to the bodily nature, ordering [the pursuit of] physical pleasures and appetites, attracting the heart to base levels; as such, it is the abode of every evil and the source of blameworthy characteristics’. Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyya (d. 751/1350) comments: As for the soul inclined to evil (al-nafs al-ammara), Satan is its associate and companion; he makes promises to it and awakens its desires, casting falsehood into it, commanding it to evil and making it appear appealing in a form that it will find acceptable and condone, with a variety of provisions and falsehood, false hopes and destructive appetites. He seeks aid against it
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  • Spring '18
  • Aalamgir

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