Indo-European Migrations - c Developed sacred language –...

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Indo-European Migrations (Out of Ukraine, Southern Russia) Early use of domesticated horse Sense of superiority I. Harrapan society a. Indus River b. Agriculturalist c. Domestication of animals d. Mohenjo–daro – 2,500 – 2,000 B.C.E. i. Economic center 1. Trade a. Egyptians 2. Wealth a. Functioning middle class b. Distinct social classes ii. 640,000 people 1. Developed infrastructure iii. Citadels iv. No strong organized religion v. Strong emphasis on fertility 1. Venerated gods of creation and procreation 2. “Vital forces” 3. Birth of Hinduism e. Decline i. Ecological degradation ii. Indus River Valley becoming deforested 1. Erosion of top soil 2. Reduced amounts of rainfall 3. River becomes more volatile, flooding f. Abandoned in 1,700 B.C.E. II. Aryan society
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a. Moving into Northern India b. Pastoralists (herders of sheep, goats, and cattle) i. Wealth & prices
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Unformatted text preview: c. Developed sacred language – Sanskrit d. The four Vedas i. Collection of hymns, songs, rituals ii. Word for “wisdom” e. Clashed with Dravidians (previous inhabitants) i. Use of Indra – the war god ii. Battle against other gods as well as their enemy iii. Formed a hybrid society with Dravidians; Indra abandoned f. Origins of the caste system i. Varna – “Color” ii. Refers to the major social classes iii. Aryans – “Wheat colored” iv. Dravidians – Dark skin coloration g. 1,000 B.C.E. – Four main Varnas recognized i. Brahmans – Priests ii. Warriors, Aristocrats iii. Middle class – cultivators, artisans, merchants iv. Shudrahs – landless peasants, serfs v. (Later on) “The untouchables” – burying the dead, butchers...
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