Psych 167 Midterm Study Guide - Psych 167 Midterm Study...

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Psych 167 Midterm Study Guide Lecture 1: Organizational - Beliefs about Effort: o Entity theorists     : High effort  implies  low intelligence , because  INTELLIGENCE IS FIXED o Incremental theorists     : High effort activates and utilizes intelligence,  because  INTELLIGENCE IS NURTURED - Theories of Intelligence (Dweck) - Mueller and Dweck 1998 – Effects of Intelligence and Effort Praise o IV: Types of Praise: Intelligence Praise, Effort Praise, Control Group – neutral-  (“wow that’s a really good score.”) o METHOD Trial 1: Success + Praise Trial 2: Very difficult problems Trial 3: Same difficulty as Trial 1  o << RESULTS - BIAS –      (the following definitions are kind of fuzzy) o Stereotypes [cognition]     : Beliefs about the attributes typically possessed by  members of a group o Prejudice[Affect]     : Affective (emotional, evaluative, visceral) disposition toward  members of a group by virtue of their group membership like pre-judging a person solely based on his group membership o Discrimination [behavior]     : Unequal treatment of members of a group relative to  members of another group or groups because of their group membership. o o Three approaches to stereotyping/ prejudice
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  Cognitive approach      Stereotypes are a by-product of human information processing  A way of simplifying the world  Given attentional demands, it is impossible not to stereotype Categorization helps brain simplify the world Especially impossible to give attention to so many things.  Therefore, when given a distraction task, people tend to  stereotype. Postulates that human information processing is inherently  imperfect and limited;  we are unable to treat each person as  an individual all of the time. SCHEMAS – Eleanor Rosch (Berkeley) o Mental structures people use to organize their knowledge  about the social world around themes or subjects o Categories that contain our basic knowledge or  impressions o Ex: we have schemas on chairs: we categorize chairs and  are able to generalize based on common features. Object schemas Scripts  - your expectations and violation of  them Person schemas - the natural process of organized  set of information or beliefs that we have about a  person Efficient way to organize information by  using existing information while being able  to incorporate new information.   We use whatever information we have  about a person to build a mental picture of  the “whole” person  Advantage     :  schemas suggest a course of  action & interaction   Disadvantage :  schemas can be wrong.
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