New World Notes - 10/26*Video Iowa's Ancient Hunters 1978...

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10/26 *Video: Iowa’s Ancient Hunters – 1978* - Cherokee site near Cherokee, Iowa - 3 sites - Hunting/Butchering Site - Horizon 1 layer was first… - As you start going down, the horizon #’s go up… - Heavy equipment was used - Allowed for a reconstruction of the environment over the past 10,000 years. - Alluvial fan -Archaeology 1. 10 cm squares were used. a. were laid out on a map of the area -Bison 1. Killed in late winter 2. Aged from the unborn 3. Dog-like remains also found -Archaeology (contd.?) 1. Floating – take soil and put it in water. Seeds & snails will float a. learned that there are fewer snails today than there were during the time of the Cherokee site. 2. Catfish jaw found 3. Bird and Mammal bones… a. woods in the area 4. Ground Squirrels a. Woodland species more abundant than prairie species. 5. Predominant stone type came from other areas 6. Bone Flute 7. Pollen can be used in dating & also shows past vegetation of the area. a. Grass & Herb pollen prevalent 8. Winds were faster then. 9. The data will hopefully help to interpret the climate & people of the time. *The 3 Horizons* Early Holocene – Middle Plains Archaic 1. 6300-6400 2. 7400 3. 8400-9000
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- Sioux River 1. I don’t know. 2. Alluvial fan in sediment that is “fanned” out. 3. The Horizons were only 6 ft. apart. a. each layer was associated with a Bison Bone Bed, i. Late winter kill 4. Much greater forest cover then. a. not as dense as a normal forest 5. Still cooler and damper 6. During the occupation, the Pacific Winds helped to dry out the land. a. late Boreal to late Atlantic 7. By Horizon 2, a great reduction in forest 8. By Horizon 1, almost no forest 9. The Bison were killed because they go from the uplands to the lowlands. 10. Large area of excavation 11. May show decline in humans, Early to mid Holocene. 12. Tall grass gives way to short grass 13. Buffalo numbers seem to be declining 14. # of people also decreasing Plains Archaic 1. Similar to Eastern Woodland Archaic 2. 2. Never had high carrying capacity that east. Woodlands did. -Cherokee sewer site 1. Shows winter living in the Plains 2. Shows fishing became more prevalent 3. no fish until horizon 4. Group size changes between winter & Summer, bison did it too 5. People moved with the herd 6. Not much evidence of food production
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10/29/07 Plains Archaeology Pt.3 Northwest Plains area, High Plains 1. Colorado – mile high mountains. a. grand Tetons 2. Arguments about the type of points. a. One person looks at quality of flaking b. The other looks at buffalo hunting c. Flaking shouldn’t be used to base all the beliefs 3. None of the systems of classification are perfect Paleo-Indian Early Prehistoric 1. Points look just the same as in the Midwest and high plains 2. on the low end of the population density and high end of pop. Movement 3. flaking patterns are somewhat the same a. later, the quality isn’t quite as good 4. Grasslands are really starting to dominate a. plains doesn’t have the carrying capacity that the Eastern Woodlands did 5. Early Plains Projectile Points a. Not as worried about making them last as long b. Some had deep basal notching
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