Chapter 0 (The Subject of Transport Phenomena).pdf - Chapter 0 The Subject of Transport Phenomena ChE 771 Advanced Transport Phenomena Dr Rami Jumah

Chapter 0 (The Subject of Transport Phenomena).pdf -...

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Chapter 0 The Subject of Transport Phenomena ChE 771: Advanced Transport Phenomena Dr Rami Jumah Department of Chemical Engineering Jordan University of Science and Technology
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Learning Outcomes By the end of this course, you should be able to: Understand the definition of transport phenomena. Understand the three (3) types of transport phenomena. Explain the mechanisms of transport phenomena. 2
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What are the Transport Phenomena? A transport phenomenon is any of various mechanisms by which particles or quantities move from one place to another. Includes 3 closely related topics: a) Fluid dynamics involves the transport ofmomentum. b) Heat transfer deals with the transport of energy. c) Mass transfer concerned with the transport of mass of various chemical species. 3
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Transport Processes Momentum Transport transfer of momentum which occurs in moving media (fluid flow, sedimentation, mixing, filtration, etc.) Heat Transport transfer of energy from one region to another (drying, evaporation, distillation) Mass Transport transfer of mass of various chemical species from one phase to another distinct phase (distillation, absorption, adsorption, etc.) 4
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Why Study Transport Phenomena? 5 Transport Phenomena Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics PROCESS EQUIPMENT DESIGN Materials Science Process Economics Chemical Reaction Kinetics
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6 Levels of Analysis of Transport Phenomena
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Levels of Analysis 7 MACROSCOPIC MICROSCOPIC MOLECULAR Use of macroscopic balances Overall assessment of a system
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Levels of Analysis 8 MACROSCOPIC MICROSCOPIC MOLECULAR Small region/volume element is selected Use of equations of change Velocity, temperature, pressure and concentration profiles are determined
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Levels of Analysis 9 MACROSCOPIC MICROSCOPIC MOLECULAR Molecular structure and intermolecular forces become significant Complex molecules, extreme T and P, chemically reacting systems
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Momentum Transport Fluid flow is a simple example of momentum transfer. The driving force for fluid flow is a pressure difference. On a molecular scale that means that the molecules banging into each other transfer their momentum to other molecules. On a larger scale, these molecules banging into each other determine how the fluid is going to flow that is, if it will just flow smoothly (laminar), or if it will be rough (turbulent). 10
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Example Water flow in a drinking fountain. What will happen if the valve in a drinking fountain is opened? When the valve in a drinking fountain is opened, the water flows out in a jet because the water pressure inside the fountain is much higher than the atmospheric pressure into which the jet discharges. 11
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Heat Transfer Deals with the transfer of energy and difference in temperature is the driving force for the heat transfer.
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