Neuroscience - Neuroscience Neurons(nerve cells are similar...

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Unformatted text preview: Neuroscience Neurons (nerve cells) are similar to other cells in the body with some exceptions. Bear, Connors, Paradiso, 2001 However, neurons differ from other cells in the body in that: Neurons have specialized extensions Neurons contain some specialized structures Dendrites Axons Synapses Myelin sheath Neurotransmitters Bear, Connors, Paradiso, 2001 Action Potential Huffman, 2007 Action Potential Vesicles Neurotransmitters Axon membrane Synaptic cleft Postsynaptic ending Receptor sites Dendrite (Presynaptic ending) Cell body Axon Axon Terminal Bear, Connors, Paradiso, 2001 The Class as a Neural Network Neurotransmitter Substances Serotonin (5HT) Acetylcholine (ACh) Dopamine (DA) Norepinephrine (noradrenalin) (NE) Epinephrine (adrenaline) Gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA) Glutamate Endorphins Psychotropic Medication Agonists Antagonists Meyers, 2004 The Nervous System Peripheral Autonomic system Sympathetic nervous system Parasympathetic system Somatic system Central Neural Networks Spinal Cord Brain Sensory Neurons Motor Neurons Interneurons Endocrine System Exocrine glands Hormones Endocrine glands Endocrine Glands Hypothalumus Thyroid Parathyroid Ovary Testes Anterior pituitary Posterier pituitary Bear, Connors, Paradiso, 2001 Measuring Brain Function Technology Electroencephalogram (EEG) Computed tomography (CT) Positron emission tomography (PET) scan Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) Electroencephalogram (EEG) Computed tomography (CT) Positron emission tomography (PET) scan Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) Lowerlevel Brain Structures Brainstem Thalamus Medulla Reticular formation Pons Lowerlevel Brain Structures cont. Cerebellum Basal ganglia Lowerlevel Brain Structures cont. Limbic System Hippocampus Amygdala Hypothalamus Cerebral Cortex Cortex White matter Glial cells The Brain Lobes Frontal Lobe Occipital lobe Temporal lobe Parietal lobe Bear, Connors, Paradiso, 2001 Functions of the Cortex Motor cortex Sensory cortex Visual cortex Association areas Language Structures Wernicke's area Broca's area Aphasia Plasticity Which part of the brain is injured? Linnea feel while skiing this past winter. When she fell, she hit the back of her head very sharply against the ice on the slope. She now has difficulty moving about; her movements are jerky and she has to concentrate hard to make even the simplest movements. Which part of the brain is injured? Kip was in a car accident recently. He seems okay except that he has a very difficult time remembering things. He can remember things that happened in his life prior to the accident; his difficulty appears to be in forming new memories. Which part of the brain is injured? To pay her way through college, Shawna took a parttime job in the evenings working in a small factory. While she was working, the factory caught fire and there was an explosion before she could escape to safety. The explosion caused a small piece of metal to lodge deeply in her left frontal lobe. Although she made a complete recovery otherwise, her ability to use language was forever changed; she could not express herself at all--she could only utter one or two words. Phineas Gage Divided Brain Corpus callosum Split Brain Hemispheric differences: Right Left Perceptual skills Language Comparison's between Einstein's brain and those of men approximately his age were made. Findings Interpretation of Results Critiques? Einstein's brain ...
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