HNF_311_week_9-trace_minerals

HNF_311_week_9-trace_minerals - Trace Minerals Except iron...

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    Trace Minerals Except iron, many of the trace minerals identified as dietary essential only recently Difficult to measure Difficult to demonstrate deficiency Trace minerals interact with each other Trace mineral content of plant depends to some extent on content of mineral in soil Animal foods generally better sources Most refined cereals have less trace minerals than whole grains, add iron back but not other minerals
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    Iron-Fe In every cell ~5 g in body Fe deficiency in a billion or more humans world wide Women and children Fe absorption is controlled Heme Fe (Fe in hemoglobin and myoglobin) is 2-3x as well absorbed as nonheme Fe
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    Iron cont. Meat has a protein to help increase nonheme Fe absorption Nonheme Fe+2 (ferrous) absorbed better than Fe+3 (ferric). Vit C and acid reduce Fe+3 to Fe+2 to facilitate absorption
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    Iron cont. Heme Fe absorbed directly after the protein has been removed Phytates, oxalates, tannins, and Ca supplements interfere with Fe absorption Fe in intestinal cell may go to blood where it is bound to transferrin The remainder is bound to apoferritin in intestinal cell to form ferritin
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    Iron cont. If transferrin is saturated with Fe because liver, spleen, and bone marrow have adequate stores, Fe remains in intestinal cells More than 90% of RBC Fe is recycled Fe functions in energy metabolism, work performance, immune function, cognitive development, and temperature regulation
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    Fig. 12.1
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