CIVIL SOCIETY(1).docx - USERNAME 1 Name Professor Course Date Civic society Using Making Democracy work CIVIC TRADITIONS IN MODERN ITALY by Robert

CIVIL SOCIETY(1).docx - USERNAME 1 Name Professor Course...

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USERNAME 1 Name Professor Course Date Civic society Using Making Democracy work: CIVIC TRADITIONS IN MODERN ITALY by Robert Putnam in collaboration with Raffaella Y. Nanetti and Robert Leornardi published in 1993. Starting with relevant analysis of their studies, the level of democracy in a certain region or a region of a country is predicted by some indicators known as development indicators. These indicators may be a series of distant past that present individuals have no control over such as socioeconomic conditions of a region or a region of a country. Putnam is a political analyst and a professor at Harvard University and in his work; he tries to focus more on regional governments of Italy. His work also tries to conclude that social capital remains to be the main variable that would explain the major differences in performances of institutions. Putnam’s findings have been criticized on many occasions: in the economic and socio-political analysis, superficially in the empirical studies and in the historical analysis by other scholars. However, Putnam’s work has greatly affected policy makers and the social science community. In order to analyze some relevant concepts, this paper will start with briefly summarizing Making Democracy work. The main aim of this paper would be to answer three questions “Do
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USERNAME 2 you feel that democratic potential today is largely conditioned by the past? Is there any hope that certain regions of the world can “escape” their past and actually develop into something better? And do culture shape institutions, or do institutions shape culture?” Putnam has studied the Italian regional case in particular to clearly clarify on the dependent variable of the democratic potential of any region as well as the institutional performance. Special features were connected to the regional government introduction in Italy. In his study, Putnam analyzed twenty regions in Italy. The first five regions were established even before 1970 and they attained greater powers constitutionally as compared to others. The other fifteen regions were created in 1970 and they all had similar constitutional mandates and powers. The major difference that Putnam highlighted between the twenty regions was the background of their establishment: Italy initially was heterogeneous under economic, cultural, political and social aspects. All these differences were the reasons behind the diverging regional performances, which later on decreased in quality as soon as the regions went more southern.
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