HNF_311_week_10_energy_balance

HNF_311_week_10_energy_balance - Energy Balance Positive...

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Energy Balance Positive balance/negative balance Creeping weight gain One kcal is the amount of energy to raise the temperature of 1 kg water 1 degree C Measured in a bomb calorimeter
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Energy Expenditure Basal metabolism Post absorptive, at rest, thermoneutral ~60-70% of total energy use BMR influenced by lean body mass, body surface area, nutritional state, pregnancy, caffeine and tobacco Physical activity 20-35% of total energy use Can vary widely
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Energy Expenditure cont. Thermic effect of food (TEF) 5-10% of total energy use Energy cost of digesting, absorbing, and metabolizing food Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) May occur during overeating, and variable responses among subjects Adaptive response involving the sympathetic nervous system fidgeting
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Measurement of Energy Expenditure Direct calorimetry Heat release Indirect calorimetry Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide release Food +O2 = CO2 + H2O + heat Respiration measurements and use of stable isotopes are 2 approaches to indirect calorimetry
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Estimation of Energy BMR = 0.9 and 1.0 kcal/kg body weight /h for women and men Physical activity contribution Add 20-40% (sedentary), 55-65% (moderate activity), and 80-100% (heavy activity) of BMR to BMR to get BMR + PA TEF = 10% of BMR + PA The estimate for total energy expenditure = BMR + PA + TEF estimates
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Hunger Hunger is the drive to find and eat food Controlled in part by interactions of the gut, liver, and central nervous system Vagus nerve is important Hypothalamus integrates regulation of food intake Blood glucose is one signal to regulate feeding
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Hunger cont.
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