Madeleine Leininger, nursing theorist, is responsible for expanding on
what is call “holistic care”.
Leininger is a licensed registered nurse and PhD in
human science, science and philosophy. She explained the need for knowledge
of patient cultural similarities and differences in her publications,
Diversity and Universality and Transcultural Nursing (
Before, Leininger basic physiological, sociological and environmental
background were the main aspect of the nursing assessment. Her theory
introduced the culturological assessment.
This concept of nursing involved
acknowledgment of a patient’s generational and spiritual beliefs.
nursing addressed the patient, education, nursing and environment, the basic
metaparadigms of nursing. By being culturally competent, nursing care became
more patient directed.
Knowing how a patient’s cultural background will allow
them to accept, view and follow health guidelines, opened nurse-patient
relationships (Wehbe-Alamah, 2018). This allows trust and a more cohesive path
to patient centered care.