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Unformatted text preview: Physics_Vol-2-FM.qxd 07/02/2007 7:42 AM Page i PMAC-291 27B:GK023:Chapters:FM-Vol2: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] Physics for Engineers and Scientists Third Edition Volume 2 (Chapters 22–36) ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM WAV E S A N D O P T I C S T H E O RY O F S P E C I A L R E L AT I V I T Y W • W • NORTON & COMPANY B NEW YORK • LONDON Physics_Vol-2-FM.qxd 07/02/2007 7:43 AM Page ii PMAC-291 27B:GK023:Chapters:FM-Vol2: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] Physics_Vol-2-FM.qxd 07/02/2007 7:43 AM Page iii PMAC-291 27B:GK023:Chapters:FM-Vol2: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] Physics for Engineers and Scientists Third Edition Volume 2 (Chapters 22–36) ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM WAV E S A N D O P T I C S T H E T H E O RY O F S P E C I A L R E L AT I V I T Y HANS C. OHANIAN, UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT J O H N T. M A R K E R T, U N I V E R S I T Y O F T E X A S AT A U S T I N W • W • NORTON & COMPANY B NEW YORK • LONDON Physics_Vol-2-FM.qxd 07/02/2007 7:43 AM Page iv PMAC-291 27B:GK023:Chapters:FM-Vol2: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] To Susan Ohanian, writer, who gently tried to teach me some of her craft.—H.C.O. To Frank D. Markert, a printer by trade; to Christiana Park, for her thirst for new knowledge; and to Erin, Ryan, Sean, and Gwen, for their wonder and clarity.—J.T.M. Copyright © 2007 by W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America Third Edition Composition: Techbooks Manufacturing: RR Donnelley & Sons Company Editor: Leo A. W. Wiegman Media Editor: April E. Lange Director of Manufacturing—College: Roy Tedoff Senior Project Editor: Christopher Granville Photo Researcher: Kelly Mitchell Editorial Assistant: Lisa Rand, Sarah L. Mann Copy Editor: Richard K. Mickey Book designer: Sandy Watanabe Layout artist: Paul Lacy Illustration Studio: Penumbra Design, Inc. Cover Illustration: John Belcher, inter alia. Cover Design: Joan Greenfield Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data has been applied for. ISBN 0-393-11210-1 ISBN 978-0-393-11210-8 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10110 W. W. Norton & Company Ltd., Castle House, 75/76 Wells Street, London W1T 3QT 1234567890 W. W. Norton & Company has been independent since its founding in 1923, when William Warder Norton and Mary D. Herter Norton first published lectures delivered at the People’s Institute, the adult education division of New York City’s Cooper Union. The Nortons soon expanded their program beyond the Institute, publishing books by celebrated academics from America and abroad. By mid-century, the two major pillars of Norton’s publishing program—trade books and college texts— were firmly established. In the 1950s, the Norton family transferred control of the company to its employees, and today—with a staff of four hundred and a comparable number of trade, college, and professional titles published each year—W. W. Norton & Company stands as the largest and oldest publishing house owned wholly by its employees. Physics_Vol-2-FM.qxd 07/02/2007 7:43 AM Page v PMAC-291 27B:GK023:Chapters:FM-Vol2: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] Brief Contents Chapters 1–21 appear in Volume 1; Chapters 22–36 appear in Volume 2; Chapters 36–41 appear in Volume 3. PREFACE xiii OWNER’S MANUAL xxv PRELUDE: THE WORLD OF PHYSICS xxxv PART I MOTION, FORCE, AND ENERGY 1 PART IV ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM 692 1. SPACE, TIME, AND MASS 2 22. ELECTRIC FORCE AND ELECTRIC CHARGE 694 2. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE 28 23. THE ELECTRIC FIELD 721 3. VECTORS 69 24. GAUSS’ LAW 756 4. MOTION IN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS 94 25. ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL AND ENERGY 789 5. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION 130 26. CAPACITORS AND DIELECTRICS 828 6. FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON’S LAWS 173 27. CURRENTS AND OHM’S LAW 858 7. WORK AND ENERGY 204 28. DIRECT CURRENT CIRCUITS 887 8. CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 235 29. MAGNETIC FORCE AND FIELD 926 9. GRAVITATION 271 10. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES 305 30. CHARGES AND CURRENTS IN MAGNETIC FIELDS 964 11. COLLISIONS 338 31. ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION 993 12. ROTATION OF A RIGID BODY 365 32. ALTERNATING CURRENT CIRCUITS 1030 13. DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 394 14. STATICS AND ELASTICITY 429 PART V WAVES AND OPTICS 1068 33. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 1070 PART II OSCILLATIONS, WAVES, AND FLUIDS 466 15. OSCILLATIONS 468 34. REFLECTION, REFRACTION, AND OPTICS 1111 35. INTERFERENCE AND DIFFRACTION 1168 16. WAVES 507 17. SOUND 536 18. FLUID MECHANICS 565 PART VI RELATIVITY, QUANTA, AND PARTICLES 1214 36. THE THEORY OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY 1216 PART III TEMPERATURE, HEAT, AND THERMODYNAMICS 600 19. THE IDEAL GAS 602 37. QUANTA OF LIGHT 1254 38. SPECTRAL LINES, BOHR’S THEORY, AND QUANTUM MECHANICS 1286 20. HEAT 628 39. QUANTUM STRUCTURE OF ATOMS, MOLECULES, AND SOLIDS 1320 21. THERMODYNAMICS 661 40. NUCLEI 1354 41. ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND COSMOLOGY 1396 APPENDICES A-1 v Physics_Vol-2-FM.qxd 07/02/2007 7:43 AM Page vi PMAC-291 27B:GK023:Chapters:FM-Vol2: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] Physics_Vol-2-FM.qxd 07/02/2007 7:43 AM Page vii PMAC-291 27B:GK023:Chapters:FM-Vol2: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] Table of Contents Chapters 1–21 appear in Volume 1; Chapters 22–36 appear in Volume 2; and Chapters 36–41 appear in Volume 3. PREFACE xiii 3.3 OWNER’S MANUAL xxv 3.4 PRELUDE: THE WORLD OF PHYSICS xxxv PART I MOTION, FORCE, AND ENERGY 1 1. SPACE, TIME, AND MASS 2 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Coordinates and Reference Frames 3 The Unit of Length 5 The Unit of Time 9 The Unit of Mass 11 Derived Units 13 Significant Figures; Consistency of Units and Conversion of Units 14 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 20 2. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE 28 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7* Average Speed 29 Average Velocity for Motion along a Straight Line 32 Instantaneous Velocity 35 Acceleration 39 Motion with Constant Acceleration 42 The Acceleration of Free Fall 49 Integration of the Equations of Motion 54 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 57 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 87 4. MOTION IN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS 94 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 5. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION 130 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 3.2 The Displacement Vector and Other Vectors 70 Vector Addition and Subtraction 72 Newton’s First Law 131 Newton’s Second Law 133 The Combination of Forces 138 Weight; Contact Force and Normal Force 141 Newton’s Third Law 144 Motion with a Constant Force 151 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 159 6. FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON’S LAWS 173 6.1 6.3 6.4* 3.1 Components of Velocity and Acceleration 95 The Velocity and Acceleration Vectors 98 Motion with Constant Acceleration 102 The Motion of Projectiles 104 Uniform Circular Motion 112 The Relativity of Motion and the Addition of Velocities 115 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 118 6.2 3. VECTORS 69 The Position Vector; Components of a Vector 76 Vector Multiplication 81 Friction 174 Restoring Force of a Spring; Hooke’s Law 182 Force for Uniform Circular Motion 184 The Four Fundamental Forces 191 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 192 vii Physics_Vol-2-FM.qxd 07/02/2007 7:43 AM Page viii PMAC-291 27B:GK023:Chapters:FM-Vol2: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] viii CONTENTS 7. WORK AND ENERGY 204 12.2 12.3 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Work 205 Work for a Variable Force 211 Kinetic Energy 214 Gravitational Potential Energy 218 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 224 12.4* 12.5 Rotation about a Fixed Axis 367 Motion with Constant Angular Acceleration 374 Motion with Time-Dependent Angular Acceleration 376 Kinetic Energy of Rotation; Moment of Inertia 378 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 384 8. CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 235 13. DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY 394 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4* 8.5 Potential Energy of a Conservative Force 236 The Curve of Potential Energy 244 Other Forms of Energy 248 Mass and Energy 251 Power 253 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 259 9. GRAVITATION 271 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 272 The Measurement of G 277 Circular Orbits 278 Elliptical Orbits; Kepler’s Laws 282 Energy in Orbital Motion 288 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 293 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4* Work, Energy, and Power in Rotational Motion; Torque 395 The Equation of Rotational Motion 399 Angular Momentum and its Conservation 406 Torque and Angular Momentum as Vectors 410 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 417 14. STATICS AND ELASTICITY 429 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 Statics of Rigid Bodies 430 Examples of Static Equilibrium 433 Levers and Pulleys 441 Elasticity of Materials 445 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 450 10. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES 305 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 Momentum 306 Center of Mass 313 The Motion of the Center of Mass 323 Energy of a System of Particles 327 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 328 PART II OSCILLATIONS, WAVES, AND FLUIDS 466 15. OSCILLATIONS 468 15.1 11. COLLISIONS 338 15.2 15.3 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4* Impulsive Forces 339 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension 344 Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension 348 Collisions in Two and Three Dimensions 351 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 354 15.4 15.5* Simple Harmonic Motion 469 The Simple Harmonic Oscillator 476 Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy 480 The Simple Pendulum 484 Damped Oscillations and Forced Oscillations 488 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 494 16. WAVES 507 12. ROTATION OF A RIGID BODY 365 16.1 12.1 Motion of a Rigid Body 366 16.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Wave Motion 508 Periodic Waves 509 Physics_Vol-2-FM.qxd 07/02/2007 7:43 AM Page ix PMAC-291 27B:GK023:Chapters:FM-Vol2: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] CONTENTS 16.3 16.4 The Superposition of Waves 516 Standing Waves 520 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 524 21. THERMODYNAMICS 661 21.1 21.2 21.3 17. SOUND 536 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5* Sound Waves in Air 538 Intensity of Sound 540 The Speed of Sound; Standing Waves 543 The Doppler Effect 574 Diffraction 553 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 555 18. FLUID MECHANICS 565 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 Density and Flow Velocity 567 Incompressible Steady Flow; Streamlines 569 Pressure 573 Pressure in a Static Fluid 575 Archimedes’ Principle 580 Fluid Dynamics; Bernoulli’s Equation 582 ix 21.4 The First Law of Thermodynamics 663 Heat Engines; The Carnot Engine 665 The Second Law of Thermodynamics 675 Entropy 677 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 681 PART IV ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM 692 22. ELECTRIC FORCE AND ELECTRIC CHARGE 694 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 The Electrostatic Force 695 Coulomb’s Law 698 The Superposition of Electrical Forces 703 Charge Quantization and Charge Conservation 706 Conductors and Insulators; Charging by Friction or by Induction 708 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 712 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 587 23. THE ELECTRIC FIELD 721 PART III TEMPERATURE, HEAT, AND THERMODYNAMICS 600 23.1 23.2 23.3 19. THE IDEAL GAS 602 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 The Ideal-Gas Law 603 The Temperature Scale 609 Kinetic Pressure 613 The Internal Energy of an Ideal Gas 616 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 619 23.4 23.5 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 745 24. GAUSS’ LAW 756 24.1 24.2 20. HEAT 628 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6* Heat as a Form of Energy Transfer 629 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids 633 Thermal Conduction 638 Changes of State 642 The Specific Heat of a Gas 644 Adiabatic Expansion of a Gas 647 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 650 The Electric Field of Point Charges 722 The Electric Field of Continuous Charge Distributions 729 Lines of Electric Field 736 Motion in a Uniform Electric Field 740 Electric Dipole in an Electric Field 742 24.3 24.4 24.5 Electric Flux 757 Gauss’ Law 762 Applications of Gauss’ Law 763 Superposition of Electric Fields 772 Conductors and Electric Fields 774 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 778 25. ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL AND ENERGY 789 25.1 25.2 The Electrostatic Potential 790 Calculation of the Potential from the Field 798 Physics_Vol-2-FM.qxd 07/02/2007 7:43 AM Page x PMAC-291 27B:GK023:Chapters:FM-Vol2: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] x CONTENTS 25.3 25.4 25.5 Potential in Conductors 803 Calculation of the Field from the Potential 806 Energy of Systems of Charges 811 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 816 26. CAPACITORS AND DIELECTRICS 828 26.1 26.2 26.3 26.4 Capacitance 829 Capacitors in Combination 834 Dielectrics 838 Energy in Capacitors 844 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 847 27. CURRENTS AND OHM’S LAW 858 27.1 27.2 27.3 27.4 Electric Current 859 Resistance and Ohm’s Law 863 Resistivity of Materials 868 Resistances in Combination 872 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 878 28. DIRECT CURRENT CIRCUITS 887 28.1 28.2 28.3 28.4 28.5 28.6* 28.7* 28.8* Electromotive Force 888 Sources of Electromotive Force 890 Single-Loop Circuits 893 Multi-Loop Circuits 897 Energy in Circuits; Joule Heat 901 Electrical Measurements 903 The RC Circuit 907 The Hazards of Electric Currents 913 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 914 29. MAGNETIC FORCE AND FIELD 926 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4 29.5 The Magnetic Force 928 The Magnetic Field 931 Ampére’s Law 938 Solenoids and Magnets 943 The Biot-Savart Law 948 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 951 30. CHARGES AND CURRENTS IN MAGNETIC FIELDS 964 30.1 30.2 30.3 30.4 30.5* Circular Motion in a Uniform Magnetic Field 965 Force on a Wire 969 Torque on a Loop 972 Magnetism in Materials 976 The Hall Effect 980 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 984 31. ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION 993 31.1 31.2 31.3 31.4 31.5 31.6* Motional EMF 994 Faraday’s Law 997 Some Examples; Lenz’ Law 1001 Inductance 1008 Magnetic Energy 1013 The RL Circuit 1015 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 1018 32. ALTERNATING CURRENT CIRCUITS* 1030 Resistor Circuit 1013 32.2 Capacitor Circuit 1035 32.3 Inductor Circuit 1038 32.4 * Freely Oscillating LC and RLC Circuits 1041 32.5 * Series Circuits with Alternating EMF 1046 32.6 The Transformer 1053 32.1 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 1057 PART V WAVES AND OPTICS 1068 33. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 1070 33.1 33.2* 33.3 33.4 33.5 33.6* Induction of Magnetic Fields; Maxwell’s Equations 1071 The Electromagnetic Wave Pulse 1075 Plane Waves; Polarization 1079 The Generation of Electromagnetic Waves 1088 Energy of a Wave 1092 The Wave Equation 1096 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 1099 Physics_Vol-2-FM.qxd 07/02/2007 7:43 AM Page xi PMAC-291 27B:GK023:Chapters:FM-Vol2: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] CONTENTS 34. REFLECTION, REFRACTION, AND OPTICS 1111 34.1 34.2 34.3 34.4 34.5 34.6* Huygens’ Construction 1113 Reflection 1114 Refraction 1117 Spherical Mirrors 1128 Thin Lenses 1135 Optical Instruments 1144 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 1152 38. SPECTRAL LINES, BOHR’S THEORY, AND QUANTUM MECHANICS 1286 38.1 38.2 38.3 38.4 38.5 Spectral Lines 1287 Spectral Series of Hydrogen 1291 The Nuclear Atom 1293 Bohr’s Theory 1295 Quantum Mechanics; The Schrödinger Equation 1302 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 1312 35. INTERFERENCE AND DIFFRACTION 1168 35.1 35.2* 35.3 35.4 35.5 35.6 Thin Films 1169 The Michelson Interferometer 1174 Interference from Two Slits 1177 Interference from Multiple Slits 1183 Diffraction by a Single Slit 1190 Diffraction by a Circular Aperture; Rayleigh’s Criterion 1196 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 1199 39. QUANTUM STRUCTURE OF ATOMS, MOLECULES, AND SOLIDS 1320 39.1 39.2 39.3* 39.4 39.5 Principal, Orbital, and Magnetic Quantum Numbers; Spin 1321 The Exclusion Principle and the Structure of Atoms 1328 Energy Levels in Molecules 1333 Energy Bands in Solids 1336 Semiconductor Devices 1340 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 1345 PART VI RELATIVITY, QUANTA, AND PARTICLES 1214 40. NUCLEI 1354 40.1 36. THE THEORY OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY 1216 36.1 36.2 36.3 36.4 36.5 36.6 36.7* The Speed of Light; the Ether 1218 Einstein’s Principle of Relativity 1220 Time Dilation 1224 Length Contraction 1230 The Lorentz Transformations and the Combination of Velocities 1232 Relativistic Momentum and Energy 1239 Mass and Energy 1242 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 1244 40.2 40.3 40.4 40.5 40.6* 40.7 37.1 37.2 37.3 37.4 37.5 37.6 Blackbody Radiation 1255 Energy Quanta 1258 Photons and the Photoelectric Effect 1264 The Compton Effect 1269 X Rays 1273 Wave vs. Particle 1276 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 1279 Isotopes 1355 The Strong Force and the Nuclear Binding Energy 1359 Radioactivity 1365 The Law of Radioactive Decay 1372 Fission 1377 Nuclear Bombs and Nuclear Reactors 1379 Fusion 1384 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 1386 41. ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND COSMOLOGY 1396 41.1 37. QUANTA OF LIGHT 1254 xi 41.2 41.3 41.4 41.5 41.6 The Tools of High-Energy Physics 1397 The Multitude of Particles 1403 Interactions and Conservation Laws 1405 Fields and Quanta 1409 Quarks 1412 Cosmology 1416 SUMMARY / QUESTIONS / PROBLEMS / REVIEW PROBLEMS / ANSWERS TO CHECKUPS 1424 Physics_Vol-2-FM.qxd 07/02/2007 7:43 AM Page xii PMAC-291 27B:GK023:Chapters:FM-Vol2: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] xii CONTENTS APPENDICES APPENDIX 1: GREEK ALPHABET A-1 APPENDIX 2: MATHEMATICS REVIEW A-1 APPENDIX 6: THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS (SI) A-21 A6.1 A6.2 A2.1 A2.2 A2.3 A2.4 A2.5 A2.6 A2.7 Symbols A-1 Powers and Roots A-1 Arithmetic in Scientific Notation A-2 Algebra A-3 Equations with Two Unknowns A-5 The Quadratic Formula A-5 Logarithms and the Exponential Function A-5 APPENDIX 3: GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY REVIEW A-7 A3.1 A3.2 A3.3 A3.4 A3.5 Perimeters, Areas, and Volumes A-7 Angles A-7 The Trigonometric Functions A-8 The Trigonometric Identities A-9 The Laws of Cosines and Sines A-10 APPENDIX 4: CALCULUS REVIEW A-10 A4.1 A4.2 A4.3 A4.4 A4.5 A4.6 Derivatives A-10 Important Rules for Differentiation A-11 Integrals A-12 Important Rules for Integration A-15 The Taylor Series A-18 Some Approximations A-18 APPENDIX 5: PROPAGATING UNCERTAINTIES A-19 A6.3 Base Units A-21 Derived Units A-23 Prefixes A-23 APPENDIX 7: BEST VALUES OF FUNDAMENTAL CONSTANTS A-23 APPENDIX 8: CONVERSION FACTORS A-26 APPENDIX 9: THE PERIODIC TABLE AND CHEMICAL ELEMENTS A-31 APPENDIX 10: FORMULA SHEETS A-33 Chapters 1–21 A-33 Chapters 22–41 A-34 APPENDIX 11: ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED PROBLEMS AND REVIEW PROBLEMS A-35 PHOTO CREDITS A-49 INDEX A-53 Physics_Vol-2-FM.qxd 07/02/2007 7:44 AM Page xiii PMAC-291 27B:GK023:Chapters:FM-Vol2: TechBooks [PPG -QUARK] Preface Our aim in Physics for Engineers and Scientists, Third Edition, is to present a modern view of classical mechanics and electromagnetism, including some optics and quantum physics. We also want to offer students a glimpse of the practical applications of physics in science, engineering, and everyday life. The book and its learning package emerged from a collaborative effort that began more than six years ago. We adapted the core of Ohanian’s earlier Physics (Second Edition, 1989) and combined it with relevant findings from recent physics education research on how students learn most effectivel...
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