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2 - Jacques Charles(1746-1823 Robert Boyle(1627-1691 Joseph...

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1 Robert Boyle (1627-1691) Jacques Charles (1746-1823) Joseph Gay-Lussac (1778-1850) William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) 1824-1907 Amedeo Avogadro (1776-1856) John Dalton (1766-1844) Johannes van der Waals (1827-1923) Gases: The Phenomenological/Macroscopic approach Thomas Andrews (1813-1885) Why do we start with gases? Because the gaseous state is the simplest state of matter (compared to solids, liquids and plasmas) What properties define the state of a gaseous system? Extensive properties (proportional to the amount of material): Number of moles (n), volume (V), internal energy (U),… Intensive properties (independent of the amount of material): Concentration (C), temperature (T) , pressure (P)…
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2 -2 5 Pressure 1Pa=1Nm 1bar=10 Pa 1atm=1.01325bar =760torr P V T n R = ( ) 1 1 -1 -1 23 -1 Ideal gas constant: 8.31451 J K mol 0.08206LatmK mol 6.022 10 mol B R k = = = × 0 Absolute temperature: / / 273.15 T K t C = + The ideal gas equation of state Underlying Assumption: The interaction between the molecules is negligible (low concentration, low pressure, high temperature). Number of moles 3 3 6 Volume: 1m =10 L =10 mL Boyle's law: 1 (constant & ) P V n T
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