2 - Jacques Charles (1746-1823) Robert Boyle (1627-1691)...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–5. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1 Robert Boyle (1627-1691) Jacques Charles (1746-1823) Joseph Gay-Lussac (1778-1850) William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) 1824-1907 Amedeo Avogadro (1776-1856) John Dalton (1766-1844) Johannes van der Waals (1827-1923) Gases: The Phenomenological/Macroscopic approach Thomas Andrews (1813-1885) Why do we start with gases? Because the gaseous state is the simplest state of matter (compared to solids, liquids and plasmas) What properties define the state of a gaseous system? Extensive properties (proportional to the amount of material): Number of moles (n), volume (V), internal energy (U),… Intensive properties (independent of the amount of material): Concentration (C), temperature (T) , pressure (P)…
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
2 -2 5 Pressure 1Pa=1Nm 1bar=10 Pa 1atm=1.01325bar =760torr P V T n R = () 11 -1 -1 23 -1 Ideal gas constant: 8.31451 J K mol 0.08206LatmK mol 6.022 10 mol B R k −− = = 0 Absolute temperature: / / 273.15 TK t C =+ The ideal gas equation of state Underlying Assumption: The interaction between the molecules is negligible (low concentration, low pressure, high temperature). Number of moles 33 6 Volume: 1m =10 L =10 mL Boyle's law: 1 (constant & ) P Vn T
Background image of page 2
3 Charles-Gay-Lussac Law: (constant & ) (constant & ) VT n p PT n V All lines meet at the absolute zero temperature at V=0 Avogadro Law: (constant & ) Vn T P 0 Molar volume: / 24.79L/mol (at 25 and1bar) VV n C == V n Increasing pressure or decreasing temperature
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
4 Dalton’s law and partial pressures The pressure exerted by a mixture of perfect gases is the sum of the pressures that each gas would exert if it were alone in the container at the same temperature: ... AB j j j jj PP P P n P Px P nn =++= == × ++ Total pressure Partial pressures Mole fraction Real gases – deviations from the ideal gas law The compressibility factor: 1 Ideal gas 1 Real gas (attractions dominate) 1 Real gas (repulsions dominate) PV PV Z nRT RT = < > Compressibility factor for nitrogen gas as a function of pressure at three different temperatures. At lower temperatures and low pressures, the attractive intermolecular forces cause a negative
Background image of page 4
Image of page 5
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 06/13/2009 for the course CHEM 260 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at University of Michigan.

Page1 / 13

2 - Jacques Charles (1746-1823) Robert Boyle (1627-1691)...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 5. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online