Data transmission.pdf - CS4344 – Computer Networks and Distributed Systems Transmission The image part with relationship ID rId2 was not found in the

Data transmission.pdf - CS4344 – Computer Networks and...

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The image part with relationship ID rId2 was not found in the file. CS4344 – Computer Networks and Distributed Systems Transmission
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The image part with relationship ID rId14 was not found in the file. Transmission Terminology Data transmission occurs between transmitter and receiver over some transmission medium Communication is in the form of electromagnetic waves Guided media Twisted pair, coaxial cable, optical fiber Unguided media (wireless) Propagation through air, vacuum, and seawater
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The image part with relationship ID rId14 was not found in the file. Transmission Terminology
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The image part with relationship ID rId14 was not found in the file. Transmission Terminology Simplex Signals are transmitted in only one direction One station is transmitter and the other is receiver Half duplex Both stations transmit, but only one at a time Full duplex Both stations may transmit simultaneously The medium is carrying signals in both directions at the same time
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The image part with relationship ID rId14 was not found in the file. Amplitude (volts) Time (a) Analog Amplitude (volts) Time (b) Digital
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The image part with relationship ID rId14 was not found in the file. Amplitude (volts) A Time 0 –A Amplitude (volts) A Time 0 –A (a) Sine wave (b) Square wave period = T = 1/ f period = T = 1/ f The simplest sort of signal is a periodic signal , in which the same signal pattern repeats over time
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The image part with relationship ID rId14 was not found in the file. Sine Wave Is the fundamental periodic signal Can be represented by three parameters Peak amplitude ( A ) Maximum value or strength of the signal over time Typically measured in volts Frequency ( f ) Rate at which the signal repeats Hertz (Hz) or cycles per second Period ( T ) is the amount of time for one repetition T = 1/ f Phase ( f ) Relative position in time within a single period of signal
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The image part with relationship ID rId14 was not found in the file. –1.0 –0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 s 1.0 0.5 0.0 (c) A = 1, f = 2, K = 0 –1.0 –0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 s 1.0 0.5 0.0 (d) A = 1, f = 1, K = U /4 –1.0 –0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 s 1.0 0.5 0.0 (b) A = 0.5, f = 1, K = 0 1.0 0.5 0.0 –0.5 –1.0 1.5 s t s ( t ) s ( t ) s ( t ) s ( t ) t t t 1.0 0.5 0.0 (a) A = 1, f = 1, K = 0 Figure 3.3 s ( t ) = A VLQ ±² ft + K )
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The image part with relationship ID rId14 was not found in the file. Wavelength ( l ) The wavelength of a signal is the distance occupied by a single cycle Can also be stated as the distance between two points of corresponding phase of two consecutive cycles Assuming signal velocity v , then the wavelength is related to the period as l = vT Or equivalently l f = v Especially when v=c c = 3*10 8 m/s (speed of light in free space)
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The image part with relationship ID rId14 was not found in the file.
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