Ent Final Exam Review

Ent Final Exam Review - Ent 2004 Insects and Human Society...

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Ent 2004: Insects and Human Society Final Exam Review Insects as pests of plants •The US has a limited amount of valuable crop land- we can’t afford to give it away to insects •Ornamental plants also bring in a lot of money •All over the US, states are losing millions of dollars due to plant damage from insects (pine, squash, sweet corn, tomatoes, etc) •In all of the US, medfly damage to fruits, nuts, and vegetables is estimated to cost $1.5 billion if it becomes established •How do plants grow? •Begin from seeds, sometimes growing from roots of older plants (like the aspen and oak) •Roots take up moisture and nutrients •Stems translocate water and nutrients to leaves (xyfem) and food to fruits and growth tissue (phloem) •Leaves take in light that generate food production and growth thru photosynthesis; respiration •The flower is pollinated (fertilized) and produces seed •The fruit protects seeds and aids in dispersal •Types of injury to plants •Insects can feed on ALL the parts of the plant (there are seed/fruit feeders, root feeders, leaf feeders, sap feedesrs, stem feeders) •Leaf feeders •Remove leaf area from a plant •Most plants maximize their leaf areas to maximize the amt. of sugars produced by photosyntesis for use in making new seeds
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•Leaf feeding insects reduce the overall level of sugar accumulation, which is needed for shoot and root growth and fruit production •Examples: japanese beetle, bean leaf beetle •”Leaf mining” is a special type of leaf feeding in which the insect eats tissue between outer layers, destroying cells that conduct photosynthesis, turning leaves brown (ex. elm and birch leaf miners) •The Black Locust is a conspicuous leaf miner in the VT area: the larvae eat from the inside of the leaf then the adult eats the outside •Borers •Insects that bore into the stem which weakens the plant structurally; also inhibits or eliminates transport of water and nutrients •Found in the trunks, stems and limbs of trees as well as small plants •Bark and Engraver Beetles •Specialized borers- feed on phloem just beneath bark- affects the flow of nutrients and allows fungi to enter plant (examples: southern pine engraver, six- spined engraver, southern pine beetle) •Fluid feeders (Sucking Insects) •Mouthparts like a hypodermic needle •Feed on plant sap- usually phloem which contains the sugars produced by photosynthesis and many insects (like aphids) can remove these sugars •Rob plants of nourishment •Also transmit diseases •Fruit and seed feeders •Reduce yield by feeding directly on fruit or seed
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•Major prob. If we want the fruit or seed they’re feeding on (ex. corn earworm eating ears of corn) •Minor problem if we don’t (ex. insect feeding on spinach seeds, because we only eat the leaves) •Examples: fruit fly, coneworm, oak acorn weevil •Gall makers •These insects cause great physical damage by their phytohormone secretions, causing abnormal plant growth
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