AOSS Review - AOSS/CHEM/ENVIRON 105 2007 Exam#2 Review...

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AOSS/CHEM/ENVIRON 105 - 2007 Exam #2 Review Sheet The Carbon Cycle – Notes from Lecture 1. a) What is a reservoir? an artificial lake, used to store water (or other substances) for various uses A container of value, the ocean is a reservoir of water b) What is the burden in a reservoir and what determines how large it is? The burden in the reservoir is the amount of water. The more water, the larger the burden c) What is meant by residence time in a reservoir? Residence time is the average length of time matter spends in a resevoir d) What conditions must be true for a reservoir to be in steady state? For a reservoir to be in a steady state o Input=Output and Source=Sink 2. a) How can you distinguish between organic and inorganic carbon? The term inorganic vs. organic carbon describes what other atoms are bonded to a carbon atom. Carbon is a very important element in life as such all living things are made of carbon. Organic carbons are found in living organisms or a result of living organisms. Hydrocarbon molecules are forms of organic carbon. Inorganic carbon is a term for carbon outside that definition. Carbonite, carbon dioxide are inorganic carbons. Organic means from life Inorganic from everything else o Not from life o CO 2 , carbonic acids b) What are some examples of sources of organic and inorganic carbon? Sources of Organic Carbon- Coal and oil (what we are worried about) Sources of Inorganic Carbon- Seashells and coral 3. How is carbon transformed through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration? In Photosynthesis carbon is transformed from Inorganic to organic o CO 2 + H 2 O CH 2 O + O 2 In respiration or burning (decay), carbon is transformed from organic to inorganic o CH 2 O + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O 4. a) Why is there a seasonal fluctuation in atmospheric CO 2 concentrations? There are seasonal fluctuation is atmospheric CO 2 concentrations because during the sping and summer is when photosynthesis occurs and takes the CO 2 out of the atmosphere. However, during the fall and winter plants begin to die and the transformation is reversed and CO 2 is released back into the atmosphere b) What is the name of the curve that displays this seasonal variation? Keeling Curve o Measured since 1956 o General upward trend due to the burning of fossil fuels 5. a) What are the major reservoirs of carbon in the Earth system? Major reservoirs of carbon in the earth system are the deep ocean, the shallow ocean, land, atmosphere, vegetation
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b) Which reservoir is the largest? The largest reservoir is the ocean 6. a) What is meant by the Long Term Carbon Cycle? A small flux (amount of material overtime that is changing) of organic carbon is buried in sedimentary rocks, mostly on continental shelves Over time, this small flux has accumulated to create a HUGE reservoir Concentrations of this buried organic carbon include coal, oil, and gas Organic carbon in sedimentary rocks is ultimately returned as CO 2 resulting from
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