Biology Genetics 3304 Notes.docx - 1 Biology Genetics 3304 Notes Connor Runyan 2 Chapter 3 1 Heredity a The process by which all living things produce

Biology Genetics 3304 Notes.docx - 1 Biology Genetics 3304...

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1 Biology Genetics 3304 Notes Connor Runyan
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2 Chapter 3 1. Heredity a. The process by which all living things produce offspring unquestionably like themselves 2. Historical Theories of Inheritance a. Pangenesis – Inheritance based on the production of specific particles (seeds) by all parts of the body and on the transmission of these particles to offspring at the time of conception b. Preformationism – Egg or sperm believed to carry fully formed humans c. Blending Inheritance – Parental Traits become mixed and forever changed in offspring 3. Why Was Mendel Successful? a. Chose to study pea plans i. Easy to grow ii. 1 Generation/Year
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3 b. Studied 7 Characteristics that exist in 2 alternative forms c. Formulated hypothesis based on initial results, then tested his hypothesis by performing additional crosses, and used mathematics to analyze results 4. Summary of Important Genetic Terms a. Gene i. An inherited factor (encoded in the DNA) that helps determine a characteristic b. Allele i. One of two or more alternative forms of a gene c. Locus i. Specific place on a chromosome occupied by an allele d. Genotype i. Set of alleles possessed by an individual organism e. Heterozygote i. An individual organism possessing two differed alleles at a locus f. Homozygote i. An individual organism possessing two of the same alleles at a locus g. Phenotype or Trait i. The appearance or manifestation of a characteristic h. Characteristic or Character i. An attribute or feature possessed by an organism 5. Mendel’s Conclusion from Monohybrid Crosses a. Principle of Segregation: i. Each individual has w alleles for a given trait (gene) ii. F1 inherit alleles from both parents that they may transfer to the next generation (F2) via their gametes b. Concept of Dominance: i. When an individual has 2 different alleles for a trait (gene), only the phenotype produced by the dominant allele is observed
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4 ii. Recessive alleles are “masked” when heterozygous with a dominant allele of the same trait, but may be transmitted to next generation 6. Molecular Nature of Alleles a. Most genes code for proteins b. In most cases, dominant alleles code for a functional protein and recessive alleles code for a defective protein, or no protein at all 7. Probability a. Probability: the likelihood of the occurrence of a particular event b. Used in genetics to predict the outcome of a genetic cross c. Multiplication Rule d. Addition Rule 8. Multiplication Rule a. Probability of 2 or more independent events occurring is equal to the product of their independent probabilities ***Key Word: and. *** 9. Addition Rule a. Probability of 2 or more mutually exclusive events occurring is calculated by adding their independent probabilities *** Key Word: Or ***
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