Genetics Exam 1 Biology 3304.pdf - Genetics Exam 1 Notes Intro Chapter 1 ● What is genetics ○ Composed of three subunits ■ Transmission genetics

Genetics Exam 1 Biology 3304.pdf - Genetics Exam 1 Notes...

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Genetics Exam 1 Notes Intro/ Chapter 1 What is genetics? Composed of three subunits Transmission genetics Heredity The process by which all living things produce offspring unquestionably like themselves Ex. cat can't produce lady bug litter How traits are passed on Molecular genetics How genes function Population genetics Frequencies of genes Won’t cover this Historical theories of inheritance Pangenesis Inheritance based on the production of specific particles (seeds) by all parts of the body and on the transmission of these particles to offspring at the time of conception Particles of some sort that are sent from all parts of the body are transmitted to the next generation Germ-plasm theory Germ line Produce egg or sperm (gametes)
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Somatic cells Rest of cells in body Soma means body Do not directly contribute to next generation Preformation Egg or sperm believed to carry fully formed human (the homunculus) Blending inheritance Parental traits become mixed and forever changed in offspring It wasn't until the 1900’s that people started to acknowledge mendel's laws thanks to scientists such as Carl Correns, Hugo de Vries, and Erich von Tschermak Chapter 3 Mendel worked on his own in Austria He was trying to understand the basis of genetic crosses (ex. Food crops) Genetics techniques have been used in agriculture for thousands of years - without understanding principles of genetics Why was Mendel successful? He chose pea plants - easy to grow, 1 generation/year He studies 7 pea characteristics that exist in 2 alternative forms Seed color, seed shape, seed coat color, flower position, stem length, pod color and pod shape
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Formulated hypotheses based on initial results, then tested his hypotheses by performing additional crosses, and used mathematics to analyze results Important genetic terms Allele Mendel observed two alleles per gene Genotype Combination of alleles an organism has Phenotype Caused by genotype + environment Characteristic is much more broad
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Ex could have a pea plant that should be tall yet if malnourished while growing it will not be tall Mendel's experiment
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Same experiment as above but now focused on genotypes and alleles
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Mendel’s conclusions from monohybrid crosses 1. Principle of segregation: Each individual has 2 alleles for a given trait (gene). F1 inherit alleles from both parents that they may transfer to the next generation (F2) via their gametes 2. Concept of Dominance When an individual has 2 different alleles for a trait (gene), only the phenotype produced by the dominant allele is observed. Recessive alleles are “masked” when heterozygous with a dominant allele of the same trait, but may be transmitted to next generation Molecular Nature of Alleles Most genes code for proteins
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