Impact damage on fibre-reinforced polymer matrix composite.pdf - JOURNAL OF COMPOSITE M AT E R I A L S Article Impact damage on fibre-reinforced polymer

Impact damage on fibre-reinforced polymer matrix composite.pdf

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JOURNAL OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS Article Impact damage on fibre-reinforced polymer matrix composite – A review Sandeep Agrawal 1 , Kalyan Kumar Singh 2 and PK Sarkar 2 Abstract As the application of fibre-reinforced polymer composite material continue to increase day by day, so the knowledge about the impact behaviour of fibre-reinforced polymer composite structures in the areas such as automotive and aerospace is very much needed. This article attempts a comprehensive review of recent literature in the broader area of impact damage. Testing methods and standard parameters as well as discussion of important aspects such as impactor shape, weight of impactor, velocity of impact, environment in which impact takes place are presented. Furthermore, the damage area, energy absorbed, contact time and many other considerations are discussed. Finally, an effort is made to review the research work by considering all aspects related to impact on such type of composite materials. Keywords Composites, fibre-reinforced polymer, impact damage Introduction In present days fibre-reinforced composite materials are widely used in various engineering applications includ- ing automotive, aviation and engineering structures due to their lightweight, high stiffness, strength and damp- ing properties. Air vehicles may be subjected to impact loads by foreign objects such as debris from runways, bird strikes or hailstones (during flight). The impact damage in composite materials may not be detected sometimes by visual inspection. Such impact-induced damages occur inside the material and increase after the onset of small delaminations. In an impact event, several damage types occur in composite materials such as matrix cracking, delamination and fibre breakage. Consequently, the impact behaviour of the laminated composite materials is an important phenomenon to be studied. 1 The brittle nature of most fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites accompanying other forms of energy absorption mechanisms such as fibre break- age, matrix cracking, debonding at the fibre–matrix interface and especially plies delamination, play important roles on progressive failure mode and energy absorption capability of composite structures. These failure modes under low-velocity impact loading conditions are strongly dependent on the fibre type, resin type, lay-up, thickness, loading velocity and projectile type. For low-velocity impact events, the usage of pendulums like the ones present in the Charpy test 2 and drop towers or drop weights 3 has become standard. The high-energy absorbing capabil- ities of FRP composite materials are one of the main factors in their application in automotive and aero- space structures. They also provide other functional and economic benefits such as enhanced strength, dur- ability, weight reduction and hence lower fuel con- sumption for structural vehicle crashworthiness. FRP composites are able to collapse in a progressive, con- trolled manner which results in high specific energy absorption in the event of crash. Unlike metals and
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