Civil and structural engineering applications, recent trends, research and developments on pultruded - Front Struct Civ Eng 2013 7(3 227–244 DOI

Civil and structural engineering applications, recent trends, research and developments on pultruded

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REVIEW Civil and structural engineering applications, recent trends, research and developments on pultruded fi ber reinforced polymer closed sections: a review Alfred Ko fi GAND * , Tak-Ming CHAN, James Toby MOTTRAM Civil Research Group, School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, United Kingdom * Corresponding author. E-mail: [email protected] © Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013 ABSTRACT The objectives of this study are to review and evaluate the developments and applications of pultruded fi ber-reinforced polymer composites in civil and structural engineering and review advances in research and developments. Several case applications are reviewed. The paper presents a state-of-the-art review of fundamental research on the behavior of pultruded fi ber reinforced polymer closed sections and highlights gaps in knowledge and areas of potential further research. KEYWORDS fi bre reinforced polymer composites, behaviour of FRPs tubular sections, pultruded FRP tubular pro fi les, FRP tubes in bridges, applications of pultruded FRP tubes, new-build with FRP tubes 1 Introduction Historically, four traditional materials including steel, concrete, timber and masonry have dominated the construction industry. Masonry and timber were the chief materials for build structures up until a few hundred years ago. The last two hundred years has however witnessed the emergence of structural steelwork and reinforced concrete as leading construction materials, with most modern urban landscapes and architecture dominated by these two materials. Steel and concrete, although have largely contributed to the sustenance of the construction industry in many parts of the world, can both be affected by various degree and forms of degradation, when they remain neglected for a longer period of time. Reinforced concrete can suffer from corrosion to reinforcing steel as shown in Fig. 1, leading to spalling of the concrete and exposure of the steel reinforcement, which when not addressed will result to the structural integrity of the structural systems being compromised [1]. To prevent and slow down infrastructure deterioration, new materials are constantly being explored by engineers. Materials that can prolong and extend the design lives of existing structure and also enable the design and construction of new build structures are paramount. Fiber reinforced polymers (FRPs), are relatively new class of non-corrosive, high strength and lightweight materials that have in the last few decades emerged as practical materials for a variety of structural engineering Article history: Received Apri 1, 2013; Accepted May. 30, 2013 Fig. 1 Severely corroded reinforcing steel in bridge piers [1] Front. Struct. Civ. Eng. 2013, 7(3): 227 244 DOI 10.1007/s11709-013-0216-8
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applications. FRPs are a subgroup of the class of materials referred to more generally as composites. The composites are de fi ned as materials created by the combination of two or more materials, on a macroscopic scale, to form a new
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