Neuroscience Notes.docx - Psychology Notes Chapter 3 Neuroscience How do Scientists Study the Nervous System In the past researchers of psychological

Neuroscience Notes.docx - Psychology Notes Chapter 3...

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Psychology Notes Chapter 3: Neuroscience How do Scientists Study the Nervous System? In the past, researchers of psychological issues avoided analyzing the brain, because of limits in study methods and technologies Past Methods Examining autopsy tissue Testing the behaviour of patients with damage to certain parts of the brain (neuropsychologists) Recording electrical brain activity through electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp (electroencephalograms, EEGs) – map what caused the change, but not where the change happened Animal studies (lesioning) o provide information about the brain and nervous system o do not tell us about activity in specific regions of healthy, living, human brains New Methods Neuroimaging: techniques that allow for studying brain activity and structure by obtaining visual images in awake humans o computerized axial tomography (CAT or CT) two dimensional images that detect problems well preferred method for identifying cancer o magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) strong magnetic field to produce images of anatomy detect soft tissue injuries in tendons and ligaments o diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) orientation and integrity of white matter o Positron emission tomography (PET) harmless radioactive substance is injected into a person’s blood, brain scanned via radiation detectors o Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) oxygenated hemoglobin after a person is exposed to magnetic pulses How does the nervous system work? Neuron: specialized cells in the nervous system; differ in size and function; keep you going – smell, movement, emotions; electrochemical exchange cell body: the working center of the cell, cytoplasm and nucleus dendrites: extend like branches, gets info from other cells- axon: extends away from the cell body, gives info to other cells
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axon terminal/terminal buttons: region at the end, release neurotransmitters myelin sheath: speed up the process, insulation about axon nodes of Ranvier: gaps in between the myelin sheaths Glia: traditionally microglia are a glue and waste system o now have multiple types and functions o
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