9. Oxidative phosphorylation 2019.pdf - Oxidative Phosphorylation Glycolysis TCA cycle produces very little ATP directly(substrate level phosphorylation

9. Oxidative phosphorylation 2019.pdf - Oxidative...

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Oxidative Phosphorylation - Glycolysis + TCA cycle produces very little ATP directly (substrate level phosphorylation). - For each glucose - Glycolysis: 2 ATPs and TCA cycle : 2 ATPs - The rest of the energy is stored in the reduced cofactors: 10 NADH + 2 FADH 2 per glucose - Oxidation of the reduced co-factors releases energy: ( G ' = -220 kcal/mol) ( G ' = -182 kcal/mol) - Consider that: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O ( G ' = -2870 kcal/mol) FADH 2 + 1/2 O 2 FAD + H 2 O NADH + H + + 1/2 O 2 NAD + + H 2 O - Thus, the reduced co-factors from oxidation of 1 mole of glucose store 10 X 220 + 2 X 182 = 2564 kJ of energy, accounting for about 90% of the total realizable energy (under standard conditions) 1
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NAD + /NADH and NADP + /NADPH - Diffusible 2 electron carriers - Accept or donate 1 hydride (H - ) ion (1 proton and 2 electrons) 2
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FAD/FADH 2 and FMN/FMNH 2 - Bound in enzymes as prosthetic groups - Accept or donates 1H + + 1e - at a time 3
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4 Oxidation of fatty acids and some amino acids also generate acetyl-CoA
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