Meeting 5 - Topic 6 Readings The Prism of Gender(p.67-72 Topic 6 Am I a man or a woman or something else The social construction of gender and sexuality

Meeting 5 - Topic 6 Readings The Prism of Gender(p.67-72...

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Topic 6 Readings - The Prism of Gender (p.67-72) Topic 6: Am I a man or a woman or something else? The social construction of gender and sexuality Gender stratification and inequality - Gender stratification: power and resources are systematically and unequally distributed between men and women in a patriarchal society ( social system dominated by men, in which men hold most of the powerful political and economic positions & benefit from cultural expectations that limit the role and influence of women) - Political leadership - Men’s exemption from pregnancy and lactation & their generally larger physical size and greater strength enabled them to dominate social, political, and economic life - Workforce participation, wage gap, occupational segregation: a. (Educational choices) Salaries of college graduates vary greatly by major, differences between women’s and men’s choices in college major (reflects early gender socialisation) // women in relatively low-paying fields such as education, psychology, health professions v.s. Men in relatively high-paying fields such as engineering, mathematics, and physical sciences b. (Work participation) Different work patterns contributes to wage gap: due to gender norms about family, women are more likely to reduce work hours, to take significant time off, quit a job, or turn down promotion due to family responsibilities // lack of flexibility for women returning to work after giving birth to children c. (Types of industries) Choices made affects wage gap: couples are more likely to relocate because of a man’s career d. Glass ceiling: often-invisible barrier created by individual and institutional sexism that prevents qualified women from advancing to high levels of leadership and management e. Gender discrimination in workplace is hard to combat: prejudice that colours how people view and evaluate one another’s work (co-workers and supervisors tend to see men as competent and logical, women as unreliable and emotional) f. Institutional level: cultural norms promote workplace discrimination by discouraging married heterosexual women from focusing on career advancement rather than on raising a family or from having greater success than their husbands -
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