Democracy notes - 1 2 3 4 5 Week 5 Democratization Collapse of the Berlin Wall(1989 When supporting foreign power no longer has the power to support the

Democracy notes - 1 2 3 4 5 Week 5 Democratization Collapse...

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Week 5 Democratization 1. Collapse of the Berlin Wall (1989) - When supporting foreign power no longer has the power to support the non-democratic regime that it imposed, democratization occurs - E.g. the USSR no longer support its satellite state 2. The American Invasion to Iraq (2003) - Military invasion & occupation - E.g. Japan and Iraq 3. The people power: revolution of the Philippines (1986) & Arabic Spring - Nation-wide social movement uprising against the non-democratic regime 4. Democratic reform of Bhutan (2008) - Top-down approach democratic reform initiated by or within the regime 5. Foreign Invasion to Afghanistan (2001) Democratization requires 3 processes 1. End of an authoritarian regime 2. Installation of a democratic regime 3. Consolidation of that democratic regimes (democracy becomes the only game in time, no other possibilities) **Rights, Reason, and Independence** 3 waves of Democracy (Samuel Hungtington) 1st wave (1828-1926) - 33 countries adopted universal suffrage by secret ballot - Reverse wave 1922-1942, 12 remained as democratic nations - Widening of suffrage to other communities in the society (e.g. from white make to women and ethic minorities) 2nd wave (after 1945-1962) - after the reverse wave - Defeated nations in WW2 became democracies under military rule (Japan, Germany, Austria) - Nations previously under colonial rule became independent & democratic (Africa, Asia such as Nigeria, Malaysia, Pakistan, India, Philippines) - In Venuezela, overthrew of military ruler in 1958, agreements & pacts were made between elites to consolidate democracy (e.g. respect elections whatever the outcomes, supporting democracy) 3rd wave (1970s-1990s) - Global democratic revolution - E.g. Spain, Mexico, Portugal, Chile - Catholic countries like Southern Europe and South America - Former communist regions (predominantly catholic) like Poland Reasons for frequent Democratization in the 1970s-1990s (Samuel Huntington) 1. Deepening legitimacy problems of authoritarian regimes - performance of the authoritarian regimes deteriorates as they gained powers by telling people that
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they tolerate authoritarian government for economic achievement - People compared the living standards of their own countries with the neighbouring countries, discovered the incapabilities of one government 2. Unprecedented economic growth of the 1960s 3. Striking shift of the catholic doctrines (bishops gathered in the Vatican for the Second Vatican Council & changes the direction of the Church) - shifted support from firm support of ruling elites (including authoritarian regimes) to standing with people fighting for their rights and dignity - Became a strong advocate for human rights and political rights - E.g. decisive role of the Catholic Church in the Philippines revolution 4. External forces - support from the US & the EU 5. “snowballing” - Success example of democracy from neighbouring countries How democracy takes place (Robert Dahl) - Public contestation (liberalisation): whether people could form their own political and civil organisations & compete with each other and get their voices heard in society, whether the society is liberalised -
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