Tutorial 6 Meeting - Topic Presidentialism Parliamentarism and Stable Democracy Tutorial questions 1 For new democracies in the developing world which

Tutorial 6 Meeting - Topic Presidentialism Parliamentarism...

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Topic: Presidentialism, Parliamentarism and Stable Democracy Tutorial questions: 1. For new democracies in the developing world, which system— presidentialism or parliamentarism— is more likely to ensure political stability? Why? And do we have a universal answer for all countries? How confident are you that electoral design can help mediate the fragility of democratic systems in deeply divided societies? - Parliamentarism & Presidentialism are differentiated by the election & removal methods of the political leader of the executive branch, the scope of authority of the executive leader, power relationship between executive & legislative branches - Presidentialism: A. independence of the executive & legislative branches from each other B. President is independently elected on popular election - directly accountable to the legislature - fixed term of office - Difficult to be removed except through impeachment - Parliamentarism: A. Characterised as fusion of powers - Prime Minister has an overlapping membership in the executive & legislative branches - Mutually dependent relationships between PM & the Parliament - PM relies on Parliament’s support to gain office & sustain power - Enjoys authority to dissolve the legislature in cases of major political deadlocks B. Election is more flexible without regular time interval - Parliamentary system has higher election flexibility, more equal power delegation & impetus to political cooperation and party development (ENSURE POLITICAL STABILITY) 1. After the fall of a political regime and rise of another, society is politically divided, giving rise to diverse political voices & parties, to prevent riots, it is important to give representation to different parties, so that their culture & political interests are articulated & catered to - In Parliamentarism, upon no simple majority vote on any party is casted , political parties are forced to form coalitions with other parties (addressing the diverse interests of different groups in society) - The competitive nature of presidential elections in Presidentialism favours majoritarian (further polarises society, pushing public to the 2 edges of the political spectrum) & foresters 2 party system as presidency is no divisive / huge amount of financial resources & manpower are focused on running for presidential election 2. Institutional design of Parliamentarism is more favourable for the creation of a consociational society & power sharing among players with different ethnic backgrounds & vested interests 3. Relationship between executive & legislative branches is the key to ensuring governing efficiency & effectiveness
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- PM holds membership in the Parliament, easier to demand loyal support of the Parliament when legislating policies as PM is the majority party leader - Strict party discipline promotes cooperation between the government & legislature - Presidentialism: executive-legislative deadlock is common, especially in situations where the legislature is dominated by Presidents’ rival party, leading to lame-duck administration -
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