GE CLST M1A midterm review - MIDTERM REVIEW 1 observations...

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MIDTERM REVIEW 1. observations of nature, inferences, hypotheses, tests, data collection, accept or reject hypothesis? 2. can be disproved but not proven, always set it up to disprove something 7. you cannot use deductive reasoning in science to prove that something is true 8. always a certain level of uncertainty, limitations on instruments, experiments, a lot of real variability in nature, sometimes this is used to discount scientific conclusions 9. stems from two things: size of human population, rate of resource consumption 10. increasing rapidly, 6.62 billion people on earth 11. finite, max. number of people, animals, things, that can be supported by the earth’s resources 12. see diagram 13. as you get higher, the temp. decreases in troposphere, as you get higher, the temp. increases in stratosphere, as you get higher, the temp. decreases in mesosphere, then stable in thermosphere 14. permanent gases – nitrogen, N2, variable gases – water, H20, trace gases – carbon dioxide CO2, give 1 example of each one 15. mixing much slower in stratosphere, in stratosphere it takes about 1 year for mix. Troposphere takes about 5 mins-1 month for everything to get mixed. Weather occurs a lot in troposphere because of high mixing rate. Stratosphere not much mixing because there is warm air above cold air, which is stable 16. 1. sedimentation (dust settles out), 2. rainout, 3. oxidation (atom or compound gets more oxygen), 4. photodissociation (light breaks up chemicals) 17. climate is what we expect, weather is what we get. Climate is long-term, weather is short-term 18. 1. coriolis force (wind moving around the globe moves at slant because of the earth’s movement), 2. heat from the sun 19. 1. weather stations, 2. color of the moon, 3. isotopes in shells of ocean plankton, 4. ice cores (drilling out, measuring greenhouse gases and isotopes), 5. tree rings 20. see diagram 21. 1. carbon dioxide, 2. nitrous oxide, 3. methane, 4. CFC-11 22. introduced industrialization, started emitting greenhouse gases way more than before 23. more warming in higher altitudes, sea level rise, glaciers smaller, losing land along coasts 24. intensity of solar radiation, albedo (reflectivity of earth and atmosphere, cloud cover and ice), greenhouse effect 25. sulfate aerosols would deplete ozone, sulfur is toxic, costs a lot, politically unacceptable 26. 1. plant trees, 2. capture carbon dioxide as we emit it and put it directly into the deep ocean 27. greenhouse gases are in the troposphere and there is always a natural greenhouse effect, however we are forcing and adding extra which is throwing off the balance 28. changes in geology/biology, variation in light/heat from sun because of tilt, shifts in ocean currents and circulation
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29. two very separate problems 30. 1 W/m2 of forcing will cause .3-1 degree C of globally averaged warming 31. CO2, water vapor, have the biggest impact on how light reacts with the atmosphere 32. destroy ozone even though they have some cooling effects 33. Feedbacks -decreased albedo due to melting ice (happening) positive
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  • Fall '07
  • Stolzenbach
  • Ozone depletion, Greenhouse gas

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