observations of nature, inferences, hypotheses, tests, data collection, accept or
can be disproved but not proven, always set it up to disprove something
you cannot use deductive reasoning in science to prove that something is true
always a certain level of uncertainty, limitations on instruments, experiments, a
lot of real variability in nature, sometimes this is used to discount scientific
stems from two things: size of human population, rate of resource consumption
10. increasing rapidly, 6.62 billion people on earth
11. finite, max. number of people, animals, things, that can be supported by the
12. see diagram
13. as you get higher, the temp. decreases in troposphere, as you get higher, the temp.
increases in stratosphere, as you get higher, the temp. decreases in mesosphere,
then stable in thermosphere
14. permanent gases – nitrogen, N2, variable gases – water, H20, trace gases – carbon
dioxide CO2, give 1 example of each one
15. mixing much slower in stratosphere, in stratosphere it takes about 1 year for mix.
Troposphere takes about 5 mins-1 month for everything to get mixed.
occurs a lot in troposphere because of high mixing rate.
Stratosphere not much
mixing because there is warm air above cold air, which is stable
16. 1. sedimentation (dust settles out), 2. rainout, 3. oxidation (atom or compound
gets more oxygen), 4. photodissociation (light breaks up chemicals)
17. climate is what we expect, weather is what we get.
Climate is long-term, weather
18. 1. coriolis force (wind moving around the globe moves at slant because of the
earth’s movement), 2. heat from the sun
19. 1. weather stations, 2. color of the moon, 3. isotopes in shells of ocean plankton,
4. ice cores (drilling out, measuring greenhouse gases and isotopes), 5. tree rings
20. see diagram
21. 1. carbon dioxide, 2. nitrous oxide, 3. methane, 4. CFC-11
22. introduced industrialization, started emitting greenhouse gases way more than
23. more warming in higher altitudes, sea level rise, glaciers smaller, losing land
24. intensity of solar radiation, albedo (reflectivity of earth and atmosphere, cloud
cover and ice), greenhouse effect
25. sulfate aerosols would deplete ozone, sulfur is toxic, costs a lot, politically
26. 1. plant trees, 2. capture carbon dioxide as we emit it and put it directly into the
27. greenhouse gases are in the troposphere and there is always a natural greenhouse
effect, however we are forcing and adding extra which is throwing off the balance
28. changes in geology/biology, variation in light/heat from sun because of tilt, shifts
in ocean currents and circulation