GE CLST M1B midterm review

GE CLST M1B midterm review - MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE Hydrologic...

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MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE Hydrologic cycle -sun is the driving force -rates of natural water transfer on land are small compared to that on ocean Evaporation -when surface water is heated and transformed into a vaporous state -runoff is small percentage of precipitation due to evaporation Evapotranspiration -evaporation of surface water as well as water transpiration from leaf surfaces Factors in Surface Water Balance Equation (PETRI) - precipitation = evaporation, transpiration, runoff, infiltration Groundwater Overdraft -when groundwater withdrawal from wells exceeds natural inflow. When this occurs, we can think of water as a nonrenewable resource that is being mined Groundwater Inventory (Total water vs. Available Water) -99.4% of groundwater and surface water is inaccessible, and groundwater and surface water only account for 22% of all fresh water Four Problems with Global Freshwater -available runoff is only 9-14 x 10^12 m^3/year, less than the total renewable runoff -spatial distribution of precipitation and runoff -temporal distribution of precipitation and runoff -water pollution Most common water pollutant -salt (lack of flushing from irrigated lands, naturally high salt levels, saltwater intrusion) How is water stress defined? -defined on the basis of the available fresh water per person per year -defined in terms of the percentage of total available water withdrawn -greater than 1700 m^3/person-year is not stressed, less than 500 m^3/person-year is highly stressed Is water stress “real” or “created”? -“created” in SoCal because we have over half of the state’s population but only use about 1/10 of the available water, since most of it goes to agricultural uses 5 Solutions to water scarcity -conservation
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-conveyance -storage -water reclamation -desalinization 3 uses of water in the UNITED STATES -agricultural -industrial -municipal California Water Project -moved large amounts of water from Northern Wet to Southern state (to agricultural and urban uses) Relationship between diet and water requirements -meat requires more water than grain 2-3 arguments on why China CANNOT feed itself -little cropland -seasonal variations in rainfall -diversion of water to nonagricultural uses 2-3 arguments on why China CAN feed itself -improving water quality -population trends (urbanization, demographic transition) -increase in agricultural yields 3 sources of CA water supply (note: one is groundwater) -precipitation mostly in the North and snowpack -Colorado River water imports -groundwater withdrawals 3 uses of water in CA -urban: mostly along coast -agriculture: 80% -environmental: runoff in NW part of state, salinity control along coast and the Sacramento River Delta, preserving fish habitats 3 CA regions in CA water Balance Exercise -Northern Wet region
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  • Winter '07
  • Stolzenbach
  • Clean Water Act, surface water

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