carrying capacity - FINAL STUDY GUIDE Population and...

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FINAL STUDY GUIDE Population and Resource Use -carrying capacity: maximum number of individuals of a species that an area can support indefinitely -examples of carrying capacity: reindeer on st. matthew island (overshoot in population above carrying capacity threshold) -earth’s environment is limited: 1. food runs out 2. water runs out 3. living space runs out 4.waste products accumulate -demographic rates must change as environment becomes fully occupied -population problem: environmental problems exist because of human population size and rate of resource consumption -population growth rates in limited environments for non-human species depend on: resource availability, competing species, predators and disease, habitat condition -age structure graphs Kenya has much higher population concentrated in kids/teens while U.S. has high population all over the age spectrum -limiting factors of population growth: 1. biophysical factors (resource availability, waste accumulation) 2. social factors (education, economic status, ethnic compostion) -how to limit population growth? 1. painless: produce fewer children, delay reproduction, increase spacing of children, employ birth control, educate women 2. painful: abortion, enforced national programs (one child in China) -total impact: impact/person x number of people -most populous countries vs. highest users of energy/resources: US is not the most populous but it consumes the most natural gas, electricity, and oil The Biosphere -biosphere: region occupied by living organisms -levels of bio organization: biosphere ecosystems communities populations organisms molecules -ecology: study of interactions between organisms and their environment -ecosystem: community of organisms and its local nonliving environment in which matter cycles and energy flows, physical environment differs from place to place: terrestrial and aquatic -biomes: ecosystems with similar characteristics -17 biomes worldwide and coral reefs are 18 -California supports 11 biomes, 8 within 50 miles of UCLA -chapparal: hot, dry summers, cool, wet winters, low growing, drought-resistant shrubs, vulnerable to fires, important for erosion control (ex. Santa Monica mountains) -desert: scarce rain, drought = resistance plants, soil mostly inorganic (ex. Mojave desert) -wetlands: salt marsh: few abundant plants adapted to saline soils, mudflats: rich in invertebrates, open water: fish habitat, most wetlands have been destroyed
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-inner tidal: rocky, sandy, or muddy, repeated inundation and exposure, rocky areas animal- dominated -other local biomes: temperate woodlands, upwelling, freshwater, benthos -other CA biomes: temperate rainforest, tundra, boreal forest -5 properties of ecosystems and how they relate to situation: 1. physical environment influences organisms 2. organisms influence the physical environment 3. different species interact which determines the nature of community (keystone species) 4. community composition is always changing 5. human ecosystem management requires compromise
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