[R] Barlow - 1997 - Formations of Colnial Modernity in East Asia.pdf - From FromFormations Formationsof ofColonial ColonialModernity ModernityininEast

[R] Barlow - 1997 - Formations of Colnial Modernity in East Asia.pdf

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Unformatted text preview: From FromFormations Formationsof ofColonial ColonialModernity ModernityininEast EastAsia Asiaby byBarlow, Barlow,Tani TaniE.. E..DOI: DOI:10.1215/9780822399117 10.1215/9780822399117 Duke DukeUniversity UniversityPress, Press,1997. 1997.All Allrights rightsreserved. reserved.Downloaded Downloaded29 29Jul Jul2017 201722:50 22:50 atat142.150.190.39 142.150.190.39 From Formations of Colonial Modernity in East Asia by Barlow, Tani E.. DOI: 10.1215/9780822399117 Duke University Press, 1997. All rights reserved. Downloaded 29 Jul 2017 22:50 at 142.150.190.39 From Formations of Colonial Modernity in East Asia by Barlow, Tani E.. DOI: 10.1215/9780822399117 Duke University Press, 1997. All rights reserved. Downloaded 29 Jul 2017 22:50 at 142.150.190.39 FORMATIONS OF COLONIAL MODERNITY IN EAST ASIA Tani E. Barlow, Editor D U K E U N I V E R SIT Y PRE S S Durham & London From Formations of Colonial Modernity in East Asia by Barlow, Tani E.. DOI: 10.1215/9780822399117 Duke University Press, 1997. All rights reserved. Downloaded 29 Jul 2017 22:50 at 142.150.190.39 © 1997 Duke University Press All rights reserved States of America on acid-free paper 00 Printed in the United Library of Congress Cataloging- in-Publication Data appear on the last printed page of this book. These essays originally were published in the following issues of positions: Wang Hui, "The Fate of'Mr. Science' in China: The Concept of Science and Its Application in Modern Chinese Thought;' 3:1 (spring 1995). Lydia H. Liu, "Translingual Practice: The Discourse of Individualism between China and the West:' 1:1 (spring 1993). Alan S. Christy, "The Making of Imperial Subjects in Okinawa:' 1:3 (winter 1993). James A. Fujii, "Writing Out Asia: Modernity, Canon, and Natsume Soseki's Kokoro:' 1:1 (spring 1993). Tomiyama Ichiro, "Colonialism and the Sciences of the Tropical Zone: The Academic Analysis of Difference in 'the Island Peoples;" 3:2 (fall 1995). Charles Shiro Inouye, "In the Scopic Regime of Discovery: Ishikawa Takuboku's Diary in Roman Script and the Gendered Premise of Self-Identity;' 2:3 (winter 1994). Miriam Silverberg, "Remembering Pearl Harbor, Forgetting Charlie Chaplin, and the Case of the Disappearing Western Woman: A Picture Story;' I:1 (spring 1993). Fred Y. L. Chiu, "Politics and the Body Social in Colonial Hong Kong," 4:2 (fall 1996). Charles K. Armstrong, "Surveillance and Punishment in Postliberation North Korea;' 3:3 (winter 1995). Chung moo Choi, "The Discourse of Decolonialization and Popular Memory: South Korea:' 1:1 (spring 1993). Tani E. Barlow, "C616Hiatlisffi'S Career in Postwar China Studies;' 1:1 (spring 1993). Craig Clunas, "Oriental Antiquities/Far Eastern Art:' 2:2 (fall 1994). James L. Hevia, "Leaving a Brand on China: Missionary Discourse in the Wake of the Boxer Movement:' was previously published in Modern China: An International Quarterly of History and Social Science 18:3 (July 1992), reprinted by permission of Sage Publications, Inc. From Formations of Colonial Modernity in East Asia by Barlow, Tani E.. DOI: 10.1215/9780822399117 Duke University Press, 1997. All rights reserved. Downloaded 29 Jul 2017 22:50 at 142.150.190.39 ~ ~ Contents Tani E. Barlow Introduction: On "Colonial Modernity" Wang Hui The Fate of "Mr. Science" in China: The Concept of Science and Its Application in Modern Chinese Thought 21 Lydia H. Liu Translingual Practice: The Discourse of Individualism between China and the West 83 James L. Hevia Leaving a Brand on China: Missionary Discourse in the Wake of the Boxer Movement 113 Alan S. Christy The Making ofImperial Subjects in Okinawa 141 James A. Fujii Writing Out Asia: Modernity, Canon, and Natsume Soseki's Kokoro 171 Tomiyama Ichiro Colonialism and the Sciences of the Tropical Zone: The Academic Analysis of Difference in "the Island Peoples" 199 From Formations of Colonial Modernity in East Asia by Barlow, Tani E.. DOI: 10.1215/9780822399117 Duke University Press, 1997. All rights reserved. Downloaded 29 Jul 2017 22:50 at 142.150.190.39 VI Contents Charles Shiro Inouye In the Scopic Regime of Discovery: Ishikawa Takuboku's Diary in Roman Script and the Gendered Premise of Self-Identity 223 Miriam Silverberg Remembering Pearl Harbor, Forgetting Charlie Chaplin, and the Case of the Disappearing Western Woman: A Picture Story 249 Fred Y. L. Chiu Politics and the Body Social in Colonial Hong Kong 295 Charles K. Armstrong Surveillance and Punishment in Postliberation North Korea 323 Chungmoo Choi The Discourse of Decolonization and Popular Memory: South Korea 349 Tani E. Barlow GeleHialisffi:'s Career in Postwar China Studies 373 Craig Clunas Oriental Antiquities/Far Eastern Art 413 Contributors 447 Index 449 From Formations of Colonial Modernity in East Asia by Barlow, Tani E.. DOI: 10.1215/9780822399117 Duke University Press, 1997. All rights reserved. Downloaded 29 Jul 2017 22:50 at 142.150.190.39 From Formations of Colonial Modernity in East Asia by Barlow, Tani E.. DOI: 10.1215/9780822399117 Duke University Press, 1997. All rights reserved. Downloaded 29 Jul 2017 22:50 at 142.150.190.39 From Formations of Colonial Modernity in East Asia by Barlow, Tani E.. DOI: 10.1215/9780822399117 Duke University Press, 1997. All rights reserved. Downloaded 29 Jul 2017 22:50 at 142.150.190.39 ~\I{t ?Ii~ Intro ductlOn: . 0n "c 0 1oma .1 Modernity" ~ Tani E. Barlow Colonialism and modernity are indivisible features of the history of industrial capitalism. That much has been clear since Marx pointed out the crucial role colonialism played in the transformations of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, although the ways that Marx's own narratives centered Europe and personified European capitalism's emancipatory potential are not theoretically or empirically viable. Leninist and Maoist analyses of imperialism have expanded thinking on the historical relationship between colonial exploitation and modernity, as have anticolonial wars of national liberation fought in the name of Lenin and Mao and scholarship engaged in the politics of decolonization. All this is only to reestablish three points: The first is that "modernity" must not be mistaken for a thing in itself, for that sleight of hand obliterates the context of political economy. The second is that once modernity is construed to be prior to colonialism, it becomes all too easy to assume, wrongly, the existence of an originary and insurmountable temporal lag separating colonialism from modernity. Thus, the third point is that the modernity of non-European colonies is as indisputable as the colonial core of European modernity. However, not much of this consensus on colonialism and the discourses of modernity was admitted into East Asian area studies until very recently. Looking from the inside out, academic scholarship and popular knowledge about East Asia had remained almost unbearably static, constrained for decades by, among other things, a naturalization of the knowledge field. For years, the dominant wing of East Asian historiography maintained that "China, Japan, and Korea" form one very long lived, very real, historically very homogeneous, social-cultural totality. Knowledge about this naturalized region was transparent and descriptive, analogous to that of the biological sciences, and therefore it enforced the idea that the building blocks From Formations of Colonial Modernity in East Asia by Barlow, Tani E.. DOI: 10.1215/9780822399117 Duke University Press, 1997. All rights reserved. Downloaded 29 Jul 2017 22:50 at 142.150.190.39 2 Tani E. Barlow of social science-culture, society, the individual-have indisputable epistemological authority. What happened to disrupt this confidence? The latest round of global economic restructuring finds the United States dismantling its welfarenational security state system and remobilizing into an entity more adept at operating efficiently in the regime of flexible, global capital. The older social science framework is increasingly less convincing. The rigid ideological apparatus of the Pax Americana is less central to those still willing to underwrite the cost of scholarship in the Pacific Basin, for example, the Boeing Company, Asian American elites, select Asian states, right -wing u.s. think tanks, and so on. By habitually localizing modernity in Europe and the United States, cold war Asian studies kept deferring what might otherwise have been fairly obvious-contemporary Asian modernities. The panic visible in 1980s u.s. popular culture over what appeared to some people to be "traditional" Japan's inexplicable economic ascendancy is symptomatic of this invested misreading. Now, all of a sudden, the evidence seems overwhelming. Clients of the United States, formerly held to be permanently disadvantaged "culturally;' have somehow inexplicably overtaken European allies, at least in economic terms and in terms of the living standard. Regional, capital-rich states are engaging in their own neocolonial adventures. This awakening to the unworkability of vested theoretical and evidentiary categories is, I would argue, part and parcel of the contemporary reworking of geopolitical relations into shapes not yet fully tangible. positions: east asia cultures critique, volume one, number one, titled "Colonial Modernity;' appeared in the fall of 1993. Republished under the same name in this volume are many of the essays from that initial issue, plus additional work culled from subsequent issues. I have retained the title because it sums up, in my view, the journal's first critical project, which was to interrogate received ideas about writing histories of East Asia and to suggest viable critical alternatives. positions entered into an ongoing discussion about colonialism and postcolonialism at a time when the debates were largely associated with the Subaltern School of South Asia Marxist historiography, with projects in international feminism, with scholarship on Africa and the forced immigration of its populations, and with the critique of European Orientalism begun by Edward Said. These already densely argued critiques fueled the desire just surfacing among progressive u.s. scholars working in area studies to pose our work in terms of problematics suggested by Marx, Foucault, and Derrida. From Formations of Colonial Modernity in East Asia by Barlow, Tani E.. DOI: 10.1215/9780822399117 Duke University Press, 1997. All rights reserved. Downloaded 29 Jul 2017 22:50 at 142.150.190.39 Introduction 3 In this introduction, I argue that the category of "colonial modernity" is a useful innovation. Like the expansive and suggestive terms «cultural critique;' "woman-of-color feminism" and "neo-Marxism;' it connotes present deficiencies of criticism while at the same time pointing, albeit vaguely, to ways of thinking in progressive, loosely extranational or multinational ways about regions-all regions-now undergoing remapping. l Left scholarship for the most part simply mourns the depredations of flexible capitalism, a legitimate task but limited in what it can accomplish. The changes underway compel us to keep inventing adequate ways to think about the complex histories of "East Asia:' In this necessary endeavor the frame of colonial modernity may prove useful, and I will make the case for its merits in the second part of this introduction. However, considering the questions associated with colonial modernity in a new, disintegrating scholarly terrain raises questions about reflexively evaluating critical language itself. The cusp where political economy, deconstructive political strategies, and discourse analysis meet is a good place to begin considering the difficulties of critique, where what replaces the extant lexicon must be scrutinized as carefully as that lexicon itself. Modernity exists as a cliche in the rhetoric that anyone trained in East Asian area studies speaks fluently as a condition of entering the profession. In this peculiar language there exist old historiographical stereotypes such as the "premodernity" of Korean folk culture, Japan's «failed modernity;' the "modernization of China and Taiwan;' and the "modernization initiatives" of the benevolent United States. This cryptodisciplinary lexicon is in turn rooted in older historiographic debates. For instance, in narratives about the People's Republic of China, the question of whether the turn toward "modernity" came in the Tang-Song era or in the late Ming has resting on it judgments about the restructuring of the Chinese socius under communism. Or to take another example, narratives about that altogether too discrete object of historiographic desire, Japan, involve questions of stages of history; they hinge on ascertaining whether Japanese feudalism was authentic or derivative and therefore whether the conditions of capitalist modernity were already in place when Admiral Perry arrived or not. On the other hand, in the u.s. context (also commonly referenced as "the West"), lexical terms like colony, colonial, and colonialism are frequently abandoned altogether. But it is worth pointing out that the term "colonial" maintains its highest profile (and thus its ghostly presence in cold war East Asian historiography) for the most part because there really is no other From Formations of Colonial Modernity in East Asia by Barlow, Tani E.. DOI: 10.1215/9780822399117 Duke University Press, 1997. All rights reserved. Downloaded 29 Jul 2017 22:50 at 142.150.190.39 4 Tani E. Barlow way to describe Japanese policy in Taiwan, Korea, and Manchuria. As the critical wing of Japan studies has repeatedly pointed out, the historiography of Japan in u.s. Asian studies is a mutually enabling tissue of alibis for global dominance. Indeed, to this day, apolegetics still are being published that reinforce the idea that "modern" Japan had no alternative but to "expand;' and thus while the Fifteen Year War may be indisputably an instance of imperialism, it is a wholly explicable, even excusable imperialism. This argument gets absorbed into efforts that would erase u.s. culpability in aggressive post-Pacific War neocolonialism. With the notable exception of the debate on u.s. imperialism that erupted during the Vietnam War era and in specialties such as Southeast Asian studies, neither colonialism nor imperialism has been considered a truly core or legitimate problematic for u.s. Asian studies as a field of knowledge. Moreover, because the lexicon, in use since the cold war founding of Asian studies, is really an offshoot of an explicitly imperialist historiography of the United States, terms such as colonialism and modernity must carefully be examined for their specific local meaning. In context they may end up bearing little relation to local, anti-imperialist nationalist historiographies or the work of critical historians working in the regions in question, and against state-sponsored or crudely nationalist historiographies of their own. A second strictly lexical issue is the one about alternatives. To some scholars, "postcolonialism" offers a prefabricated option to business as usual in East Asian studies. Self-described postcolonial scholars offer ways of thinking about global inequality and tools for distancing scholars from I naturalized categories like nation, tradition, modernity, and so on. Maybe even most importantly, the lexicon appears at first blush to possess a rocklike integrity, since the terms are ethically solvent and comparatively new. Yet for all its virtues, the existing postcolonial language may not prove wholly adequate to the new archive or to the already existing politics of scholarship in those destinations to which it is being exported or to the material conditions where these established terms are being applied. And that is because, as with any code, what gets transported along with new terms are certain assumptions about disciplinarity. In South Asian studies, a general argument that has emerged in recent years and that rests on incompatible views about historicity and colonialism helps explicate this question of portability regarding the postcolonial canon. The general argument goes like this: Anglo-Indian colonialism established regimes of knowledge that were modern and, although jointly if unequally authored by colonizer and colonized, tended to obscure local From Formations of Colonial Modernity in East Asia by Barlow, Tani E.. DOI: 10.1215/9780822399117 Duke University Press, 1997. All rights reserved. Downloaded 29 Jul 2017 22:50 at 142.150.190.39 Introduction 5 realities. Given that all contemporary disciplinary knowledge is implicated in this situation-since the Enlightenment heritage is by definition a colonial discourse-critical history writing will rest on one or both of two corollary assumptions: First, the critique of colonial discourses leads eventually to a postcolonial, emancipatory, non-European and multipurpose lexicon that can be used equally well in describing contexts in all of the formerly colonized world. Second, when the world that colonial discourses hitherto masked is at last revealed, it will turn out that only natives of those places understand and can write about them, and therefore the conundrum of incommensurability will replace the violence of colonial discourse. One can often see both these contradictory assumptions at work in scholarship that has uncritically borrowed its lexicon from the Subaltern Studies collective. An obvious example is the term "gendered subaltern;' which, after migrating into every conceivable regime of scholarship, has lost both its power as an abstraction and any specificity it might initially have possessed. Perhaps the point at which it becomes unprofitable to proceed with appropriations across disciplinary boundaries of the postcolonial critical lexicon is the point where the historicity oflexicons that seductively offer alternative ways to totalize across locale and specificity is itself ignored. A third question related to poaching from existing lexicons is the deceptively simple issue of defining events. How could a lexicon forged in conditions of binary opposition of colonizer/colonized work in the manically proliferating conditions of difference that operated under the conditions of semicolonialism? If colonialism is said, in a categorical sense, to be best exemplified by the English Raj, and all other forms of colonialism are understood in reference to that historical model, then not only are all other formations derivative but conditions fundamentally unlike that originary design might indeed be inconceivable or unseeable-on precisely the same grounds as the critique of colonial discourse holds European epistemes responsible for overriding the consciousness of the subaltern. My underlying point is very simple: Where in the idiom of current postcolonial studies, itself indelibly marked by the allegedly originary Manicheanism rooted in the colonial construction of the European Self in relation to multifarious others, would a form marked "semi" fit? Perhaps in the end the most valuable part of the colonial critique for projects like the ones raised in this volume will turn out to be not the syllabary per se but rather how the writing of postcolonial histories has complicated history writing in general and forced it in certain directions. HisFrom Formations of Colonial Modernity in East Asia by Barlow, Tani E.. DOI: 10.1215/9780822399117 Duke University Press, 1997. All rights reserved. Downloaded 29 Jul 2017 22:50 at 142.150.190.39 6 Tani E. Barlow to rio graphic issues raised over the years by the Subaltern Studies historians and particularly the tension the group has negotiated between Marxism and discourse theory are a r...
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