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SchedulingStaff scheduling problems are prevalent in service organizations because of high variability in customer demand. Examples include scheduling call center representatives, hotel housekeepers, tollbooth operators, nurses, airline reservation clerks, police officers, fast-food restaurant employees, and many others.Staff scheduling attempts to match available personnel with the needs of the organization by:1.Accurately forecasting demand and translating it into the quantity and timing of work to be done:2.Determining the staffing required to perform work by time period;3.Determining the personnel available and the full- and part-time mix of personnel; and4.Matching capacity to demand requirements, and developing a work schedule that maximizes service and minimizes costs.The first step requires converting demand to a capacity measure – that is, the number of staff required. For instance, we might determine that for every $400 of sales forecast, we need one additional full-time employee. The second step determines the quantity and timing of the work to be done in detail, usually by hour of the day, and sometimes in 5 to 10 minute time intervals. In step three takes into account worker productivity factors, personal allowances, sickness, vacations, no-shows, etc.Step focuses on the matching of capacity to demand requirements: this is the essence of scheduling. Different approaches are required for different situations because of the nature of constraints.