HIST 8A lecture - 10/2 Indigenous Background 1 Sedentary...

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10/2 Indigenous Background 1. Sedentary Settlement Patterns agriculture; architecture; textiles; ceramics; metals; markets; writing systems; organized religions; social stratification; state organization; dense populations 2. Mesoamerica: Central Mexico-Central America a. Nahuas speak the Nahuatl language b. altepetl = atl “water” and tepetl “hill”; divided into calpulli ; led by a tlatoani ; rotary labor service tequitl and taxation system; local autonomy c. The Azteca or Mexica Tenochca of Mexico Tenochtitlan; migration from Aztlan d. Tolteca-Chichimeca heritage e. Triple Alliance “empire”: Mexico, Tetzcoco, Tlacopan; receive tribute from many altepetl f. other prominent Nahua altepetl in central Mexico: Tlatelolco, Tlaxcala, Xochimilco, Cholula, Atzcapotzalco, Huexotzinco, Amecamecan, etc. g. other prominent language groups in central and southern Mexico: Otomi, Purhepecha, Mixtec, Zapotec, Maya, etc. h. other regions of Mesoamerica: Michoacan, Oaxaca, Campeche, Yucatan, Chiapas, Guatemala, etc. -Sierras west and east 200 miles north of Mexico City converge. Temperate climate. Basin, valley of Mexico. Was a very fertile area. -Arid, dry Northern Mexico…people lived in smaller settlements -Pyramids and monuments in valley of Mexico, flourished 200-800 AD, flat top pyramids mimicked the mountains -Cholula: church on top, Spaniards took over the sacred space of the Mesoamerican pyramids. Major pilgrimage spot, Quetzalchoa prominent -Hard to conquer hilltop sites with inhabitants surrounding it -Jade and quetzal feathers: important to natives -Mayans had writing systems, as well as other peoples -Chichimeca: northern Mexico, migrants, hunter-gatherers, Azteca one of these groups who moved from North to center (making center more competitive) -Aztec: only 9 rulers before Spaniards arrived 3. The Andes (Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile) a. The Inca of Cuzco and Cajamarca b. Inca spoke Quechua c. the ayllu ; inca , coya , curaca ; mita d. other prominent places in the Andes: Quito, Huanuco, Huamanga, Nazca, Chuquiabo, Tiahuanaco, Potosí, etc. e. other prominent languages: Aymara, Mochica, Chibcha, etc. 4. Comparisons with Western Europe
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10/4 Iberian Background 1. Ethnic Diversity in Iberia a. Celts, Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Visigoths, Jews… b. "Moors": Umayyads, Almoravids, Berbers, Almohads… c. Castilians, Basques, Catalans, Galicians, Portuguese 2. Islamic Civilization, 711- a. Al Andalus = Andalusia 3. Castile and Christianity a. political and religious unification b. “reconquista” c. union of Aragon & Castilla in 1469, monarchy d. fall of Alhambra in Granada and expulsion of Jews 1492 e. “Comunero” revolts 1519-22 4. Empire & the Limits of Tolerance a. Islamic, Jewish, and Protestant threats to Church, State b. the Inquisition and autos de fe c. Mudéjar culture and conversos d. Morisco revolt Granada 1568, expulsion 1611 -moriscos = arabs who have converted to Christianity, still carrying on Arabic traditions 5. Racial and Cultural Ideals a. limpieza de sangre "purity of blood" “always been a Christian” b. limpios, conversos, moriscos, negros 6. The Reconquista Continued… -successfully completed in 1492
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