Sedentary Settlement Patterns
agriculture; architecture; textiles; ceramics; metals; markets; writing systems; organized
religions; social stratification; state organization; dense populations
Mesoamerica: Central Mexico-Central America
a. Nahuas speak the Nahuatl language
“hill”; divided into
; led by a
and taxation system; local autonomy
c. The Azteca or Mexica Tenochca of Mexico Tenochtitlan; migration from Aztlan
d. Tolteca-Chichimeca heritage
e. Triple Alliance “empire”: Mexico, Tetzcoco, Tlacopan; receive tribute from many
other prominent Nahua altepetl in central Mexico: Tlatelolco, Tlaxcala,
Xochimilco, Cholula, Atzcapotzalco, Huexotzinco, Amecamecan, etc.
other prominent language groups in central and southern Mexico: Otomi,
Purhepecha, Mixtec, Zapotec, Maya, etc.
other regions of Mesoamerica: Michoacan, Oaxaca, Campeche, Yucatan, Chiapas,
-Sierras west and east 200 miles north of Mexico City converge.
Basin, valley of Mexico.
Was a very fertile area.
-Arid, dry Northern Mexico…people lived in smaller settlements
-Pyramids and monuments in valley of Mexico, flourished 200-800 AD, flat top pyramids
mimicked the mountains
-Cholula: church on top, Spaniards took over the sacred space of the Mesoamerican
Major pilgrimage spot, Quetzalchoa prominent
-Hard to conquer hilltop sites with inhabitants surrounding it
-Jade and quetzal feathers: important to natives
-Mayans had writing systems, as well as other peoples
-Chichimeca: northern Mexico, migrants, hunter-gatherers, Azteca one of these groups
who moved from North to center (making center more competitive)
-Aztec: only 9 rulers before Spaniards arrived
The Andes (Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile)
a. The Inca of Cuzco and Cajamarca
b. Inca spoke Quechua
d. other prominent places in the Andes: Quito, Huanuco, Huamanga, Nazca,
Chuquiabo, Tiahuanaco, Potosí, etc.
e. other prominent languages: Aymara, Mochica, Chibcha, etc.
4. Comparisons with Western Europe