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Unformatted text preview: WHY THE SPANISH HAD TO START FROM SCRATCH 1. Can’t retain existing barangays - too scattered across the Philippines (impractical) - no clearly defined boundaries (but datus know) à must be looking for definite markers 2. Spanish have to follow Spanish rules - Philip II said that new territories have to be in coastal region - near forest (to get kahoy) for boats and building SOCIAL STRATIFICATION I. REDUCCION SYSTEM - “reducir” – to reduce/limit/bring down à most accurate reducciones à barrio 1582; Fr. Juan de Plasencia o Synod of Manila § pagpupulong of priests and friars § wanted to protect katutubo § they saw how Spanish were abusive to natives • prayles were nice in the 16th century (compared to 19th) from simbahan GOALS: 1. Christianity 2. taxation system 3. surveillance • easier because they’re all together / have a list of all citizens FEATURES: Plaza Complex - church (most important part) - “bajo el son de la campana” – under the sound of the bell o you’re part of the reduccion if you can hear the bell o bell works as warning against Muslims - all essential establishments - where rich natives live (just pari – Spanish) Ø natives didn’t want to go down because their ancestors were buried in barangay • “taga-‐labas” – people who didn’t want to join • mal he chores, tulisanes (bandito), vagamundos (gala), indocumentados (not part of documents) e.g. of Plaza: Plaza Argao, Cebu Plaza Salcedo, Vigan, Ilocos Plaza Central (Rizal), Pasig Plaza Binondo (San Lorenzo) Plaza Roma, Intramuros Ancestry 1. Peninsulares - full-‐blooded Spanish - pinanganak sa Spain 2. Insulares (Creoles/Filipino [PH]) - pinanganak a colony of Spain 3. Principalia (native aristocracy) – wealth - dating uring namumuno (pamilya ng datu) - occupies 2 positions of Cabeza de Barangay and Gobernadorcillo o doesn’t pay tax o not required to join polo II.
Religion 4. Indio (baptized) - individuals who converted to Christianity - nagkataon lang na mostly natives 5. Chinos Infieles (non-‐believers) - nagkataon lang na mostly Chinese Ø “Limpieza de Sangre” – purity of the blood o old Christians (malinis dugo mo if you’re an old Christian à all ancestors were Christians POLITICAL SYSTEM 1. King of Spain - focus is still on Spain - role: appointment (political and religious) - “real patron” à Patronato Real (to ease conversion) o privileges: § revenues § appointment of prayle 2. Real y Supremo Consejo de Indias (1524) - “Council of the Indies” - laws (different from Spain) o Recopilacion de las Leyes de los Reynos de las Indias - court of last resort - Real Audiencia (supreme court in PH) o made up of Oidories (judges) - Ministerio de Ultramar (1863 – new name) 3. Viceroy of Mexico (1565-‐1821) - all affairs of PH goes through Mexico - another entity in which PH was under - achieved freedom in 1821 4. Governador y Capitan – General - appointed by King - has to be Peninsular - administrative, military (commander-‐in-‐Chief), judicial (highest Oidor), economic, ecclesiastical o estancos – monopoly stores managed by GG (economic) galleon trade – boletas (tickets) à handled by GG (economic) o Vice-‐Real Patron (ecclesiastical) - 400,000 Mexican pesos (have income coming from illegal means) - System for checks and balances: o Residencia § investigates Gov. Gen. § within 6 months after term (most make takas) o Visita § investigators that come randomly 5. Alcalde Mayor / Corregidor - appointed by King - taxation (ultimate destination of tax) - peace and order - 2,000 only - indulto de comercio (license to trade) à umaabot sa 50,000 profit (acceptable) - judge (tribunal) à Oidor - requirements: o Peninsular o abogado a. Alcalde Mayor - alcaldia - present-‐day governor - civil governor - pacified powers (no away) b. Corregidor - corregimientos - military governor - resistance (lumalaban pa rin some katutubos) 6. Alcalde Ordinario / Gobernadorcillo a. Alcalde Ordinario - ciudad - helped by councilors (cabildo) - elected by Spanish b. Gobernadorcillo - pueblo/municipio - natives - elected by natives 7. Cabeza de Barangay - barrio - mga dating datu (natives) - w/ Gobernadorcillo: o taxation § must be wealthy because they make “abono” the taxes o determines who joins polo o “Padron” à tax payer’s list § updated by prayle and G/CdB o 25 years old o must speak Spanish o never pa nakulong o TAXATION According to the Recpilacion, the reasons for paying tax include: 1. Royal treasury (renew) 2. maintenance of colonies 3. Church (pagtulong à simbahan, schools, hospitals) 4. military campaigns ENCOMIENDA SYSTEM - permit to collect taxes (hindi land yung binibigay, but permit) - “encomendar” – entrust - “encomendero” – collector o protect the natives (from muslims/tulisanes) o church/school/hospital (help in building) - “encomienda” – land - batayan of encomienda: POPULATION (may certain number of people to be considered an encomienda) - How much? 1570s o 8 reales (1 peso) à 15 reales o per family § principalia/soldiers -‐ no need to pay tax § tumandang walang asawa, may sakit -‐ may bawas tax o no currency yet, paid using agriculture (bigas, manok) o ¼ goes to encomendero 1. Encomienda de la Corona/Realenga (“crown encomiendas”) - agricultural (hindi pera) - big population - malapit sa port - revenue goes to TREASURY • Encomendero: King of Spain • Actual: Cabeza/Gobernadorcillo e.g. Tondo, Malabon (facing Manila Bay) 2. Encomiendas de Particulares (private) • Encomendero: former government officials § gets ¼ of revenue à up to 2 generations only (maraming lumalabag) o that’s why it seems na kanila yung lupa • Actual: soldiers § Francisco Liwag (Filipino) § Juan de Macapagal (Filipino) - ¾ of revenue goes to maintenance of COLONIES - in 1721, King said that after 2 generations, encomienda will be converted to Corona soldiers punish/imprison people who can’t pay •
• 3. Ecclesiastical Encomiendas - encomendero with no family left, gives encomienda to Church - revenue goes to Church • Encomendero: religious orders/institutions •
• Ø Military Tax - ½ real (for military campaigns) - therefore total tax: 8.5 reales - Luzon: “Vinta” - Visayas: “Falua” - Mindanao: “donativo de Zamboanga” Ø 1884; abolished Encomienda System à cedula personal o 18+ year-‐olds have to pay (not by family anymore) BANDALA SYSTEM - - annual enforced sale (controlled by encomendero à product, price) forced people to sell what they don’t have since they can’t sell, they buy from encomendero encomendero buys for a lower price POLO y SERVICIO/PRESTACION PERSONAL Ø Polo y Servicio Personal - annual - community forced labor (40 days dapat) - 16-‐60 years old (lalaki) à “Polistas” o no need to participate: § Principalia § students (also Principalia) § soldiers § may sakit o “falla” à 1 ½ reales – pay to not join polo - manual/mabigat na labor (manpower) - 40 days dapat but tumatagal until 8 months - indirect effect: famine à they realized this and made work 15 days na lang Ø Prestacion Personal - babae – forced domestic labor o encomendero o government official o prayle GALLEON TRADE - 1565 (Urdaneta Passage) à to 1815 (start of Mexican War of Independence) - only connection between Asia and America •
• • • • unlimited number of ships; as far as Peru/Guatemala 1593; Royal Decree: 2 ships only (Mexico anf PH) à guidelines o 250,000 Mexican pesos only o 500,000 from Acapulco Manila à Acapulco (before it wasn’t direct) supply of silk ulit in Europe, porcelain, gunpowder (Chinese products) à “La nao de China” – “ships from China” (from the PH talaga) o PH to Mexico § nawalan ng kita yung cotton manufactures in Spain § kikita yung Spanish in PH § King decided to limit silk na pwede ipadala maiz, xocolatl (chocolate) – Mex to PH PH taught Mexico how to drink (tuba), how to sabong Mexico taught PH the Nazareno, Virgin of Antipolo (Good Voyage), tianguzli (tiangge), kabayo “situado” – financial aid from Mexico o 300,000 in cash not all Galleons make it to PH (calamities, inaabangan ng Portugese) boletas – Governador General o Junta de Repartimiento (committee that chooses who to give boletas to) § gives boletas mostly to government officials (almost all even without indulto) § archbishop, encomendero malaki pakinabang ng Church (indirect participation) o Obras Pias – “works of the pious” à manages donations § pinapahiram sa boleta users with interest Indios o laborers o construction of galleon o NEGATIVE / CRITICISMS § limited native participation § limited trading relations (natives) à only to Mexico (Acapulco) 1814; someone suggested PH participate in WORLD TRADE o successful in 1834 (Indio can now join) o clase media à ilustrado § Manila • no focus on other places • people are all in Manila (what about the other places they’re assigned to) POSITIVE § cultural exchange *some say PH was Mexicanized, not Hispanized (dein) Ø Padron became complicated because people started to have the same names (Juan, Pedro, no last names Ø 1849; Catalogo Alfabetico de Apellidos - 61,000 words - Narciso Claveria – ordered to collect words - used to give last names (some Spanish, Cebuano, Ilocano, etc.) - Gov. Gen. asked how many families walang last name; for example, 100 families, he gives 100 surnames - Prayle announces list is up - fathers are mag-‐uunahan (because not all names are sound names) - to fix Padron (taxation/polo) - problematic because what if magkakapatid with different families (hindi na ma-‐trace because different surnames) - if wala sa Catalogo: o foreign o labas sa colonial order (tulisan, etc) o Muslim (Mindanao not inabot ng colonization) a. ROMAN CATHOLICISM - regular (opposite of secular) preyles converted - part of religious orders: (secular talaga dapat pero there were mostly regulars in PH) o Augustinians – 1565 o Franciscans – 1577 o Jesuits – 1581 o Dominicans – 1587 o Recollects – 1606 - Secularization issue o Indios wanted to become priests (secular) o since simbahan had to be managed by secular, Indios demanded o ayaw pumayag ng regulars because simbahan = profit - pre-‐reduccion o wala nang soldiers o people were willing na o converted Principalia first (so people will follow) § children first (Doctrina Cristiana – first book used to teach) • old people were too into native belief system § Doctrina Cristiana (3 parts) • Spanish, Tagalog, Baybayin o they said na native religion isn’t different from Roman Catholicism o supreme god (Bathala) o saints (diwatas) SACRAMENTS 1. Baptism - hindi mahirap gawin - Indios were very willing - Indios were malapit sa tubig (shallow understanding) - changed name (a lot of Marias) 2. Penance - indulgences (buy items from the Church) o paper with prayer and number of days na mababawas sa stay in purgatory 3. Matrimony - monogamous (affects Muslims) - heterosexual (affects Bayogin) - sex should be for marriage only 4. New standards of Morality - - REACTIONS TO COLONIALISM § 1. Acceptance -‐ where malakas Spanish control -‐ benefits à strong cities remained strong -‐ Principalia (still had power) – additional privileges -‐ fear (stronger than benefits) à they were treated as subjects 2. Resistance a. Muslims (Mindanao Sultanates) -‐ wealthy (why they could resist Spanish) -‐ abundance of soldiers à pangangayaw (slave-‐raiding) -‐ alliances with other Europeans (British, Dutch, Portugese) à same armas as Spanish -‐ *religion (pinakamalakas) o jihad (struggle) à to practice one’s faith i.
Greater Jihad (personal) -‐ if you have practices against Islam (e.g. alcoholism) ii.
Lesser Jihad (Holy War) à juramentado -‐ individual/Muslim stabs Catholic/Spanish -‐ uses kris -‐ kills self also (suicide mission) -‐-‐ Spanish say that the document states that Muslims will be under Spanish -‐-‐ Muslims say ceasefire lang b. Cordilleras (Ygolotes) -‐ gold comes from mountains (why Spanish wanted) à Missiones Vivas o military campaigns by Spanish Ilocos Cordilleras buffer zones instead of going back to Ilocos WHY IT FAILED o relocate (Ygolotes) o climate (guns don’t work) o horses imported through Galleon Trade (not sanay) o pagkakanyaw (head-‐hunting) o Ilocano soliders (sila yung ginamit) o § instead of fighting, they bought tabako
ilawad/ilawud relationship (buy tabako for monopoly sa baba) 3. Sporadic Revolts -‐ against certain institutions, not the whole of colonialism a. Political • Principalia - 1574; Tondo (Lakandula/Sulayman) § gusto bawiin old kapangyarihan § Spanish gave privileges instead so wala nang reklamo (no tax/polo) - 1587; Tondo (Conspiracy of the Maharlikas) § descendants of Lakandula § Magat Salamat (anak), Agustin de Legazpi, Martin Pangan (would be king) § umabot sa Cuyo, Palawan (hindi pa nasasakop) § Datu Sumaclob agreed to help but his follower Antonio Surabao made sumbong (first traydor) § Brunei, Japan (asked help also) a. Religious (Bayogin) • 1621; Bohol (Tamblot) - challenged a Jesuit priest in Bohol - to perform a miracle - whoever does is yung susundan - paglabas ng kanin sa kawayan - Spanish recorded kanin and alak from kawayan - from 0-‐2000 followers - kumalat yung pag-‐aalsa • 1621; Leyte (Pagali) - he could turn Spanish to stone when tinapunan ng putik - Juan de Alcarazo (Span) made padala Cebuano soldiers para talunin Boholanos and Leytens 1841; Tayabas (now Quezon) (Apolinario dela Cruz “Hermano Pule”) – pari - 1832; wanted to join Dominicans à was rejected because they were all Spanish - established his own order – Confradia de San Jose (4000-‐5000 native members) - Spanish felt threatened so pinasara - CSJ was secular but Church had to be held by secular so they were threatened kasi there was a group na b. Economic • 1807; Piddig (Basi Revolt) - monopoly of alak (rejected) - Spanish institutionalized monopoly of wine - Inutos to make Basi suka • 1649; Samar (Juan Sumuroy) - polo (rejected) à wala nang nagtatanim - tinalo ng Cebuano • 1762; Vigan (Diego Silang) - rejected (taxation) - he was Principalia so he doesn’t pay tax but he saw the hirap of natives - served as a messenger - instead of Galleon, he saw the arrival of British - Seven Years War (French-‐British War) à France allied with Spanish - Manuel Rojo - British made sakop Manila/Cavite - Silang declared himself Alcalde Mayor and saw an opportunity to free Ilocos (not the whole PH) - since Brits cold do it, they could also - made Dawsonne Drake (Brit) his backup - Bishop Bernardo Ustariz (Span) proclaimed self as Alcalde Mayor) - Miguel Vicos and Pedro Becbec wanted to go away from Silang à Silang made them pay tax, Ustariz allowed them to assassinate Silang (other Principalia joined) - Gabriela Silang (Diego now dead) à lahat ng sumama pinugutan ng ulo ng Spanish with Gabriela last (shows element of fear) c.
• • Personal 1744; Bohol (Francisco Dagohoy) - “Dagohoy Rebellion” - 85 years - Sagarino (sibling) dies of barilan - Gaspar de Morales didn’t give him a Catholic burial (left body outside) because he believes that if you don’t die by natural reasons, dein si God kumuha ng life mo - Dagohoy rebelled against Church - sumama na lahat (against polo, tax, politics…) WHY ALL REVOLTS FAILED ü inferior position against Spanish ü traitors ü lack of unity o Spanish used natives vs natives o why they didn’t teach/use Spanish so no unity 19th CENTURY PHILIPPINES Century of Change (at least for the Philippines) origin as early as 1700 Charles II died (el Hechizado “bewitched”) no wife, no children à no successor (political crisis in Spain) • will said APO should be successor - Philippe, Duke of Anjou (France) à Philip V (Bourbon Dynasty) eventually became king - (rival claimant) Leopold I - there has to be balance of power and no overpowering entities - mawawala because Philippe is also the apo of Louis XIV (will become king of Spain and France) • “War of Spanish Succession” - 1715; Treaty of Utretcht (stopped war) - says if Philip becomes king of Spain, he cannot become king of France - he brought French ideas to Spain à CONNECTION TO PH - France was on the Age of Enlightenment (logic/science) and rejected religious dogma - transferred to Spain through Philip V Ø
• (PH) - Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø “Bourbon Reforms” à change in economy rejected religious dogma 1780; Jose Basco y Vargas (Gov-‐Gen) o Real Sociedad Economica de Amigos del Pais o assessed PH economy o general economic plan: A. Galleon Trade - not beneficial (only Spanish benefitted) B. Agriculture (recommendation) - to develop export industry (para yumaman PH) - diversify trading networks (not just Mexico) C. Chinese (recommendation) - encourage settlement of Chinese in PH (cheap labor) Real Compania de Filipinas (made by Vargas also) - to execute general economic plan (mostly #2) - established direct relationship of PH-‐
Spain - big effect on galleon trade (way easier) Closing of the RCF (prayle) - nawalan sila ng clients - nagtagumpay Closing of Galleon Trade - nawalan ng silbi pagsara of RCF - saan dadalhin produkto? Open to Foreign Groups o Americans o British Opening of PH to World Trade (all could enter) - starts pagbabago during PH CHANGES (19th CENTURY) A. Foreign Companies (merchant houses) - Russell, Sturgis, & Co. (1828) à Americans - import/export à tea and silk - Jardine, Matheson, & Co. (1855) à British à opium - Ker, & Co. (1827) à Export sugar to British and US B. Foreign Consulates -‐US (1817) shows that US had economic interest in the PH as early as 19th century o US bombed Cuba to look for away - Russia (1817) - France (1829) - Japan (1888) • When Americans defeated Spanish, warships of different countries were nakaabang C. Infrastructure (ayusin) - Ferrocaril de Manila-‐Dagupan (railway system) o Henry Kipping – head engr - Puente Colgante (suspension bridge) - Hotel Oriente Fonda de Lala – pinakamaganda because it provides ice (from icebergs) - Telephone (1890) – 170 clients - La Esperanza (1834) – newspaper - Banco Español-‐Filipino de Isabel II – BPI D. Commercialization of Agriculture (pinaka-‐
importante) - profit-‐driven o cash crops (Bulak, Asukal, Tabako, Abaca, Kape) a. Mono-‐cropping - regional identity of crops - negative: nawala traditional production of food, famine b. Monopoly - tabako à household given 100 seeds with quota (e.g 95) - if you reach it, the gov’t pays you, if you don’t, you pay tax c. Hacienda (pagbuo/pagmaintain) - “friar estates” – land held by prayle - Spanish people bought the hacienda because you could use it to tanim to sell - Spanish à hacendero (won’t tanim) o pinahawak sa inquilino (Principalia families) o o sila maghahanap ng farmers – “casamahanes” H hatian ng profit • C I - 100 Camahanes families pa maghahati-‐hati inquilino bought hacinenda eventually Ø 1872 Cavite Mutiny - sundalo (for the longest time, they don’t have to pay tax/polo) - out of nowhere, Rafael Izquierdo made bawi tha rule - Fort San Felipe (where it started) allied with Fort Santiago in Manila o started in Cavite because mas onti Spanish rather than Manila because marami Spanish there - magsstart pag-‐aalsa when Caviteños see fireworks from Manila - they killed Spanish but Manileño reinforcement never came (fireworks were for fiesta pala) à Spanish soldiers came instead E. Creation of the “clase media” Ø from: Peninsulares Insulares Principalia Indio Chinos Infieles Ø to: Peninsulares Insulares Spanish Mestizo Principalia Chinese Mestizo Indio Chinos Infieles sometimes richer than Peninsulares/Insulares - not pure Spanish (never magpapantay) - “Bestias Cargadas de Oro” – beasts carrying gold à what Peni/Insu called Middle Class - invested in education (Europe) à ilustrado *if outside PH, there were ilustrados (education), in the PH, there was: Ø 1863 Educational Decree a. primary public schools in all pueblos - mandatory for all natives (additional tax if hindi sumunod) - Colegio de Niños/Niñas à exclusive b. opening of Spanish schools/universities - not exclusive to Spanish anymore - basta kaya magbayad (M.C.) - medicine, law, philosophy (priesthood) à pagdami ng pari (secular) Ø Secularization Issue - pagtransfer ng administration ng Church from regular t...
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