Kas-1-Unit-2-Notes-2.pdf - GALLEON TRADE 1565 1815 Manila to Acapulco 1565-1592 unlimited number of trading ships(Guatemala Peru 1593 onwards Philip II

Kas-1-Unit-2-Notes-2.pdf - GALLEON TRADE 1565 1815 Manila...

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GALLEON TRADE - 1565 - 1815 - Manila to Acapulco - 1565-1592: unlimited number of trading ships ( Guatemala, Peru ) - 1593 onwards: Philip II 2 ships per year PH-M: 250,000 Mexican pesos M-PH: 500,000 MP - Most prominent product: Silk - Textile manufacturers - Porcelain, gunpowder, maiz, xocolatl - La Nao de China ”: ships from China - Situado ” : 300,000 Mexican pesos from the viceroyalty of Mexico - Tiangge ”: marketplace from Mexican term “tianguizil” - Church: gave capital to Spanish (money-lenders) Obras pias : works of piety, donation with interest Padron : Church helped in updating; taxation and polo 1. Manila became a transshipment post 2. Limited trading relations between PH and other countries (trade beneficial only for Spaniards) Boleta - Gobernador Capitan y General - Junta de Repartimiento (allocation board for galleon trade) 3. Limited native participation Construction Laborers (some went to Mexico) 4. Many Spanish traders stayed in Manila Govt. officials went to Manila -> careless with their jobs 1849: Catalogo Alfabetico de Apellidos - Initiative of govt. General Narciso Claveria - Collection of possible surnames (61,000 languages used as surnames) of people who participated in reduccion ROMAN CATHOLICISM - Provided new standards of Morality for the Indios - Divided: Regular & Secular Friars - Regular Friars: members of religious orders Augustinians (1565) Franciscans (1577) Jesuits (1581) Dominicans (1587) Augustinian Recollects (1606) - Conversion in PH followed a trend: 1. (before reducciones): soldiers pacified settlements before friars converted the natives 2. First converted: children of principalia - Doctrina Cristiana: 1592 , oldest book in the PH - Doctrina: tagalog, spanish, baybayin - Introduction of Sacraments: Baptism: no resistance; assume a spanish name (Maria); new identity Reconciliation/Penance: penitensya; to lessen a person’s time in purgatory; indulgences (buy indolensya -> forgiveness) Matrimony: transexual; monogamous; no more professional divirginizers
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RESPONSE TO COLONIALISM 1. ACCEPTANCE - Benefits from colonialism Convenient (essential establishments) Cities – economic centers Principalia benefitted - Element of fear 2. RESISTANCE - Mindanao Significant population Muslims – Sultanato Wealth (Sulu Sultanato controlled trade) No. of soldiers ( pangangayaw ) Alliances (British/Dutch) Religion – “ jihad ”: struggle to one’s faith Ø Greater Jihad – personal Ø Lesser Jihad – holy war; armed resistance 1851: less resistance Ø Agreement to ceasefire Ø Acc. to Spanish: Mindanao under colonialism; acc. to Sultan: just a ceasefire Ø PURAMENTADO : resistance against external force (Christianity) – individual resistance Ø Use of KRIS (sword) - Cordilleras Ygolotes/Igorots (taga- bundok) Cordilleras: source of gold Missiones Vivas : strategy of Military campaigns to colonialize Cordilleras Ø Soldiers, friars Ø Buffer Zones : between Cordilleras and Ilocos Ø Unsuccessful: Ygolotes relocated when Spanish went back to Buffer Zones o Climate o Horses o pagkaka nyaw ” – head
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