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GALLEON TRADE - 1565 - 1815 - Manila to Acapulco - 1565-1592: unlimited number of trading ships (Guatemala, Peru) - 1593onwards: Philip II ● 2 ships per year ● PH-M: 250,000 Mexican pesos ● M-PH: 500,000 MP - Most prominent product: Silk - Textile manufacturers - Porcelain, gunpowder, maiz, xocolatl - “ La Nao de China”: ships from China - “Situado” : 300,000 Mexican pesos from the viceroyalty of Mexico - “Tiangge”: marketplace from Mexican term “tianguizil” - Church: gave capital to Spanish (money-lenders) ● Obras pias: works of piety, donation with interest ● Padron: Church helped in updating; taxation and polo 1. Manila became a transshipment post 2. Limited trading relations between PH and other countries (trade beneficial only for Spaniards) ● Boleta - Gobernador Capitan y General - Junta de Repartimiento(allocation board for galleon trade) 3. Limited native participation ● Construction ● Laborers (some went to Mexico) 4. Many Spanish traders stayed in Manila ● Govt. officials went to Manila -> careless with their jobs 1849: Catalogo Alfabetico de Apellidos- Initiative of govt. General Narciso Claveria - Collection of possible surnames (61,000 languages used as surnames) of people who participated in reduccion ROMAN CATHOLICISM - Provided new standards of Morality for the Indios - Divided: Regular & Secular Friars - Regular Friars: members of religious orders ● Augustinians (1565) ● Franciscans (1577) ● Jesuits (1581) ● Dominicans (1587) ● Augustinian Recollects (1606) - Conversion in PH followed a trend: 1. (before reducciones): soldiers pacified settlements before friars converted the natives 2. First converted: children of principalia - Doctrina Cristiana: 1592, oldest book in the PH - Doctrina: tagalog, spanish, baybayin - Introduction of Sacraments: ● Baptism: no resistance; assume a spanish name (Maria); new identity ● Reconciliation/Penance: penitensya; to lessen a person’s time in purgatory; indulgences (buy indolensya -> forgiveness) ● Matrimony: transexual; monogamous; no more professional divirginizers
RESPONSE TO COLONIALISM 1. ACCEPTANCE - Benefits from colonialism •Convenient (essential establishments) •Cities – economic centers •Principalia benefitted - Element of fear 2. RESISTANCE - Mindanao •Significant population •Muslims – Sultanato •Wealth (Sulu Sultanato controlled trade) •No. of soldiers (pangangayaw) •Alliances (British/Dutch) •Religion – “jihad”: struggle to one’s faith ØGreater Jihad – personal ØLesser Jihad – holy war; armed resistance •1851: less resistance ØAgreement to ceasefire ØAcc. to Spanish: Mindanao under colonialism; acc. to Sultan: just a ceasefire ØPURAMENTADO: resistance against external force (Christianity) – individual resistance ØUse of KRIS(sword) - Cordilleras •Ygolotes/Igorots (taga-bundok) •Cordilleras: source of gold •Missiones Vivas: strategy of Military campaigns to colonialize Cordilleras ØSoldiers, friars ØBuffer Zones: between Cordilleras and Ilocos ØUnsuccessful: Ygolotes relocated when Spanish went back to Buffer Zones oClimate oHorses o“pagkakanyaw” – head