Lecture10-reading.pdf - 10.1 The Beginnings of Genetics Mendel's Gardens Peas • • • People used to belive in the'blending of traits Gregor mendal

Lecture10-reading.pdf - 10.1 The Beginnings of Genetics...

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10.1 - The Beginnings of Genetics: Mendel's Gardens Peas People used to belive in the 'blending' of traits Gregor mendal provided many answer to questions Mendal worked with pea plants, he studied characters which were things like colour or shape. A trait is a variation of a character such as yellow or red colour 10.1a - Mendel Chose True-Breeding Garden Peas for His Experiments Mendel used the pea plant for his work sperm nuclei which are made in the anthers of the flower Eggs are produced in the carpel of the flower Eggs are fertilized by the sperm(pollen) from the same flower that were produced in the anthers, this is called self-fertilization Mendal prevented self-fertilization by cutting off the anthers which means that the pollen to fertilatize a flower would have to come from another flower, this is called cross-pollination and is the idea where the 'cross' comes from To start mendel used true-breeding plants, this means that when they self fertilize there isnt a change of traits from one generation to the next 10.1b - Mendel First Worked with Single-Character Crosses Colour was one of the many characters he studied What would happen if you crossed true-breeding purple and white flowers? Crossing would produce a seed (zygote) which would then grow into the plant First generation from the offspring are called F1 generation Plants used in the initial cross are the P generation 10.1c - Mendel's Single-Character Crosses Led Him to Propose the Principle of Segregation
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Mendel said that adult plants carry factors that govern the inheritence of each character and that for each character one factor comes from each parent Mendel's factors are genes which are on chromosomes, different versions of genes called alleles produce that different traits of a character There are two alleles for the flower colour, purple and white, organisms with two copies of each gene are called diploid but the alleles of the same gene don’t necessarily have to be the same Why is it that some traits are masked and only show up in the next generation? Dominace is what masks alleles What makes an allele dominant? When an organisms has two alleles the dominant allele is the one that determines the appearance of the organisms or the one that codes for some sort of RNA or protein Mendel also said that the pair of alleles that control a character segregate as gametes are formed by meiosis (half the gametes will get one allele and the other half will get the other allele)
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