CK-12 Chemistry Intermediate Workbook Answer Key (05.04.16).pdf - CK-12 Chemistry Intermediate Workbook(With Answers Donald Calbreath Ph.D Say Thanks to

CK-12 Chemistry Intermediate Workbook Answer Key (05.04.16).pdf

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Unformatted text preview: CK-12 Chemistry Intermediate Workbook (With Answers) Donald Calbreath, Ph.D. Say Thanks to the Authors Click (No sign in required) To access a customizable version of this book, as well as other interactive content, visit AUTHOR Donald Calbreath, Ph.D. CK-12 Foundation is a non-profit organization with a mission to reduce the cost of textbook materials for the K-12 market both in the U.S. and worldwide. Using an open-source, collaborative, and web-based compilation model, CK-12 pioneers and promotes the creation and distribution of high-quality, adaptive online textbooks that can be mixed, modified and printed (i.e., the FlexBook® textbooks). Copyright © 2016 CK-12 Foundation, The names “CK-12” and “CK12” and associated logos and the terms “FlexBook®” and “FlexBook Platform®” (collectively “CK-12 Marks”) are trademarks and service marks of CK-12 Foundation and are protected by federal, state, and international laws. Any form of reproduction of this book in any format or medium, in whole or in sections must include the referral attribution link (placed in a visible location) in addition to the following terms. Except as otherwise noted, all CK-12 Content (including CK-12 Curriculum Material) is made available to Users in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC 3.0) License ( licenses/by-nc/3.0/), as amended and updated by Creative Commons from time to time (the “CC License”), which is incorporated herein by this reference. Complete terms can be found at terms-of-use. Printed: May 4, 2016 iii Contents Contents 1 Introduction to Chemistry Worksheets 1.1 What is Chemistry? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 The Scientific Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 6 2 Matter and Change Worksheets 2.1 Properties of Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Classification Of Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Changes in Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 11 15 19 3 Introduction to Chemistry Worksheets - 1 3.1 The International System of Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Unit Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Uncertainty in Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 24 28 31 4 Atomic Structure Worksheets 4.1 Atoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 The Nuclear Model of the Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Isotopes and Atomic Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 36 39 43 5 Electrons in Atoms Worksheets 5.1 Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 The Quantum Mechanical Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Electron Arrangements in Atoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 48 52 56 6 The Periodic Table Worksheets 6.1 History of the Periodic Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Periodic Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 61 65 69 7 Chemical Nomenclature Worksheets 7.1 Ionic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Molecular Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Acids and Bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 74 78 81 8 Ionic and Metallic Bonding Worksheets 8.1 Ions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Metallic Bonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 86 90 93 9 Covalent Bonding Worksheets 96 9.1 Lewis Electron Dot Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 9.2 Molecular Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 9.3 Polarity and Intermolecular Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 iv 9.4 Contents Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 10 The Mole Worksheets 113 10.1 The Mole Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 10.2 Mass, Volume and the Mole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 10.3 Chemical Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 11 Chemical Reactions Worksheets 127 11.1 Chemical Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 11.2 Types of Chemical Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 12 Stoichiometry Worksheets 136 12.1 Mole Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 12.2 Stoichiometric Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 12.3 Limiting Reactant and Percent Yield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 13 States of Matter Worksheets 13.1 Kinetic - Molecular Theory and Gases 13.2 Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.3 Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.4 Changes of State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 149 153 157 162 14 The Behavior of Gases Worksheets 14.1 Gas Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.2 Gas Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.3 Ideal Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.4 Gas Mixtures and Molecular Speeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 168 171 175 179 . . . . 15 Water Worksheets 183 15.1 Properties of Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 15.2 Aqueous Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 15.3 Colloids and Suspensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 16 Solutions Worksheets 16.1 Solubility . . . . . . . 16.2 Solution Concentration 16.3 Colligative Properties . 16.4 Net Ionic Equations . . . . . . . . . . 17 Thermochemistry Worksheets 17.1 Heat Flow . . . . . . . . . 17.2 Thermochemical Equations 17.3 Heat and Changes of State 17.4 Hess’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 197 201 205 209 . . . . 213 214 218 222 226 18 Kinetics Worksheets 231 18.1 Rates of Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 18.2 Rate Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 18.3 Reaction Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 19 Equilibrium Worksheets 246 19.1 The Nature of Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 19.2 Le Châtelier’s Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 v Contents 19.3 Solubility Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 20 Entropy and Free Energy Worksheets 20.1 Entropy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2 Spontaneous Reactions and Free Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.3 Free Energy and Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 261 265 269 21 Acids and Bases Worksheets 21.1 Acid-Base Definitions . . 21.2 The pH Concept . . . . . 21.3 Acid and Base Strength . 21.4 Acid-Base Neutralization 21.5 Salt Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . 273 274 279 284 288 293 22 Oxidation Reduction Reactions Worksheets 22.1 The Nature of Oxidation and Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.2 Oxidation Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.3 Balancing Redox Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 298 302 306 23 Electrochemistry Worksheets 23.1 Electrochemical Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.2 Cell Potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.3 Electrolysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 312 316 320 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Nuclear Chemistry Worksheets 324 24.1 Nuclear Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 24.2 Half Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 24.3 Fission and Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 25 Organic Chemistry Worksheets 25.1 Hydrocarbons . . . . . . 25.2 Hydrocarbon Rings . . . 25.3 Functional Groups . . . . 25.4 Organic Reactions . . . . . . . . 26 Biochemistry Worksheets 26.1 Carbohydrates . . . . . . . 26.2 Amino Acids and Proteins . 26.3 Lipids . . . . . . . . . . . 26.4 Nucleic Acids . . . . . . . vi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 341 346 351 356 . . . . 361 362 366 371 375 Chapter 1. Introduction to Chemistry Worksheets C HAPTER 1 Introduction to Chemistry Worksheets Chapter Outline 1.1 W HAT IS C HEMISTRY ? 1.2 T HE S CIENTIFIC M ETHOD 1 1.1. What is Chemistry? 1.1 What is Chemistry? Worksheet Name _____________________ Class ______________________ Date ________________ Answer each of the questions below to show your achievement of the lesson objectives. Lesson Objective: Define chemistry. 1. Chemistry is the study of a. b. c. d. living systems the stars and planets all matter reactions in a test tube 2. All of the following are characteristics of matter except a. b. c. d. matter can disappear and reappear matter has mass matter occupies space all things are composed of matter 3. Which of the following is not a chemistry topic? a. b. c. d. the composition of ocean water what ocean fish eat the height of waves in surf what a surf board is made of 4. Which of the following was not a goal of the alchemists? a. b. c. d. elixir of life changing lead into rubies philosophers stone making gold from base metals Lesson Objective: Differentiate between the macroscopic and the microscopic as it relates to chemistry. 5. The tern used for materials we can see is a. b. c. d. macrolitic macrosteric macrochemical macroscopic 6. True/False: “Microscopic” refers only to those materials we can see under a microscope. 2 Chapter 1. Introduction to Chemistry Worksheets 7. A brick is a form of ________________ matter. 8. True/False: Individual acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) molecules are microscopic. 9. True/False: Studying how the molecules change in the reaction between oxygen and methane is an example of a macroscopic process. Lesson Objective: Know the relationship between pure chemistry and applied chemistry. 10. 11. 12. 13. True/False: Pure chemistry is focused on understanding basic chemical processes. True/False: Applied chemistry does not have a specific goal or application. Research that develops a new type of fireproof fabric is (pure, applied) chemistry. Studying the chemical processes involved in the formation of elements in the sun is an example of (pure, applied) chemistry. 14. The following is an example of pure chemistry a. b. c. d. developing a new fertilizer studying how pesticides kill harmful insects measuring the effect of temperature on how fast a reaction occurs finding new ways to lower cholesterol levels in the blood 15. Read the following passage and answer the questions: The line between pure chemistry and applied chemistry is not always distinct. For example, in the early 1960s, chemists at DuPont were searching for a new lightweight and strong fiber that could be used in tires. Chemist Stephanie Kwolek discovered, somewhat by accident, that a certain solution she had made displayed unique characteristics that were unlike those of other previously developed substances. The rapid expansion in the field of polymer chemistry that has occurred over the past 50 years was partially due to the results of her research. Polymers are very, very large molecules comprised of smaller subunits that are repeated over and over again in extremely long chains. The polymer that was discovered at DuPont was eventually given the name Kevlar. It is used not only in tires but also in bulletproof body armor because of its high strength and light weight. Polymer chemistry continues to be an active and vibrant field of chemistry, as both a pure and an applied discipline. a. Was the initial research that Stephanie Kwolek carried out an example of pure or applied chemistry? b. When did the project become an example of applied chemistry? Lesson Objective: Identify and describe the five primary disciplines of chemistry. 16. An analytical chemist is involved with a. b. c. d. studies of what penguins eat research to develop new rocket fuels the synthesis of new carbon compounds measurement of the amount of minerals in cereals 17. Making new compounds for high-speed tires is best done by the a. b. c. d. 18. 19. 20. 21. physical chemist organic chemist inorganic chemist biochemist True/False: A biochemist studies chemical processes in cells. True/False: A physical chemist would be the best person to determine the amount of gold in an ore sample. Reactions involving carbon compounds are studied by an ___________ chemist. The ___________ chemist would study how fast nitrogen and hydrogen form ammonia. 3 1.1. What is Chemistry? 22. How the body uses food is best studied by a ___________. 23. Chemical processes in rocks might best be studied by an ___________ chemist. Lesson Objective: Describe some of the concerns of the modern world in which chemistry has played and will continue to play a role. 24. One advantage of using nuclear energy instead of fossil fuels is a. b. c. d. nuclear energy is safe nuclear wastes are easy to store it is easy to work with nuclear materials more energy can be obtained from a given amount of nuclear material 25. Why was lead removed from gasoline? a. b. c. d. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. it made cars run too fast lead caused brain damage lead became too expensive to put in gasoline mercury is a better additive than lead ___________ is a field that involves the manipulation of DNA. Diseased arteries can be replaced by ___________ ____________ to help patients. True/False: Drugs work because of their effects on chemical processes in the body. True/False: Superconductors are only 55% efficient. Liquid crystals are found in displays in __________ and ___________. True/False: Excessive use of fertilizers can harm the water supply. Why is it important for chemists to carry out research looking at materials that harm the environment? Answer Key 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. c a c b d false macroscopic true false true false applied pure c a. the initial research was most likely a pure chemistry type of project, learning how to make polymers and studying the properties of these reactions. b. the applied chemistry came in when they wanted to make a specific product with certain properties. 16. d 4 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. Chapter 1. Introduction to Chemistry Worksheets b true false organic physical biochemist inorganic d b biochemistry plastics true false watches, calculators true sample answer: Chemists need to study the effects of materials on the environment to learn which ones will cause damage. By learning what creates problems, chemists can develop ways to reverse the damage and can look for other materials that will cause less harm and still be as useful. 5 1.2. The Scientific Method 1.2 The Scientific Method Worksheet Name _____________________ Class ______________________ Date ________________ Answer each of the questions below to show your achievement of the lesson objectives. Lesson Objective: Describe how the Renaissance period in history changed the approach to science. 1. The Renaissance a. b. c. d. occurred between the twelfth and thirteenth centuries took place during the Middle Ages was characterized by a dogmatic approach to learning brought about new ways of thinking 2. One new approach brought by the Renaissance was a. b. c. d. new methods in painting experimentation in science the sun was believed to orbit around the earth the use of leeches to treat disease 3. True/False: Leonardo da Vinci developed the idea of astronomy. 4. True/False: Copernicus studied movement of the earth. Lesson Objective: Identify the steps of the scientific method. 5. The scientific method a. b. c. d. is a recipe for doing science will always give the right answer is a systematic approach to the study of phenomena involves preconceived ideas 6. The first step in the scientific method is a. b. c. d. to ask a question to set up lab equipment to perform an experiment to calculate your data 7. A scientific experiment must be a. inexpensive b. repeatable c. complicated 6 Chapter 1. Introduction to Chemistry Worksheets d. hard to explain 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. True/False: A hypothesis is a “first-guess” explanation. True/False: A reproducible experiment means something is wrong with your hypothesis. True/Fal...
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