key terms 1 - Chapter 1 Antarctic Ocean Or Southern Ocean...

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Chapter 1: Antarctic Ocean – Or Southern Ocean; recognized as an additional ocean near the continent of Antarctica. Defined by the meeting of currents near Antarctica called the Antarctic Convergence; really the portions of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans south of about 50 degrees south latitude. Named for its location in the Southern Hemisphere. Arctic Ocean – About 7% the size of the Pacific Ocean and is only about ¼ as deep as the other oceans. Appropriately might be more of a sea. Named for its location in the Arctic region. Atlantic Ocean – About ½ the size of the Pacific and is not quiet as deep. Separates the Old World from the New World (the Americas).named after Atlas, one of the Titans in Greek mythology. Indian Ocean – Slightly smaller than the Atlantic and has about the same average depth. Located mostly in the Southern Hemisphere. Named for its proximity to the subcontinent of India. Pacific Ocean – The world’s largest ocean, consisting over half of the ocean’s surface. The single largest geographic feature on the planet, spanning over one- third of Earth’s entire surface. The deepest ocean. Named by explorer Ferdinand Magellan’s party in honor of the fine weather they encountered while crossing into the Pacific (paci means peace). Southern Ocean – Also known as the Antarctic Ocean. Asthenosphere – Relatively hot, plastic region beneath the lithosphere. Extends from the base of the lithosphere to a depth of about 700 kilometers and is entirely contained within the upper mantel. Can deform without fracturing if a force is applied slowly – has the ability to flow but has high viscosity (resistance to flow). Continental crust – Composed mostly of the lower-density and lighter-colored igneous rock granite. Most granite originates beneath the surface as molten magma that cools and hardens within Earth’s crust. All type of crust at the surface is part of the lithosphere. Oceanic crust – Underlies the ocean basins and is composed of the igneous rock basalt, which is dark-colored and has a relatively high density. Basalt -- Basalt originates as molten magma beneath Earth’s crust, some of which comes to the surface during underwater sea floor eruptions. Chapter: Plate tectonics – According to the theory, the outermost portion of Earth is composed of a patchwork of thin, rigid plates that move horizontally with respect to one another. As a result, the continents are mobile and move about on Earth’s surface, controlled by forces deep within Earth. The interaction of these plates as they move builds features of Earth’s crust.
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