key terms 2 - Chapter 5 Heat capacity the amount of heat...

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Chapter 5: Heat capacity – the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of any substance by 1 degree centigrade. A substance with a high heat capacity can absorb (or lose) large quantities of heat with only a small change in temperature. A substance that changes temperature rapidly when heat is applied has a low heat capacity. Water has a high heat capacity that is exactly 1 calorie per gram. Latent heat of vaporization – The amount of heat that must be added to1 gram of a substance at its boiling point to break the intermolecular bonds and complete the change of state from liquid to vapor (gas). For water, it is 540 calories. Latent of heat evaporation – The heat energy that must be added to 1 gram of a liquid substance to convert it to a vapor at a given temperature below its boiling points. For water, it is 585 calories at 20’ C. Thermostatic effect – The properties of water that act to moderate changes in temperature, which in turn affect Earth’s climate, such as the huge amount of heat energy exchanged in the evaporation- condensation cycle which helps make life possible on Earth. Albedo – The percentage of incident radiation that is reflected back to space. The average albedo of Earth’s surface is about 30%. More radiation is reflected back to space at high latitudes because ice has a much higher albedo than soil or vegetation. The tropics – The region between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. Receives much greater annual radiation than polar areas and characterized by strong trade winds. These winds push the equatorial currents and create moderately rough seas. Relatively little precipitation falls at higher latitudes within tropical regions, but precipitation increases toward the equator.
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