Unformatted text preview: Overview of Reading Theories and Instructional Principles
Gary A. Troia, Ph.D. Michigan State University Models Of Reading
Information Processing (LaBerge & Samuels, 1974; Gough, 1972) bottom-up processing model iconic representation (afterimage) of word corresponds to eye fixations (span of 15-20 letters within 350 msec) each letter of word is recognized via mapping of print to speech (phonemic representations) eventually, letter combinations are recognized as units lexical search for word ensues once there is a build-up of letter clusters recognized working memory holds several words at a time for higher-level processing of text (debate about what type of information about each word is held in WM) automaticity of letter and word recognition is critical Interactive Processing (Rumelhart, 1976) simultaneous processing model recognition of visual features of letters and letter clusters interact with lexical, semantic, and syntactic information from text in a feedback and feedforward loop processing is hypothesis-driven context is viewed as very important to letter and word recognition supporting evidence found in studies in which individuals read real and pseudowords faster than illegal nonwords and in which oral reading miscues suggest that there is an influence of context because substitutions are not necessarily visually or phonologically similar to the target word (often they are the same part of speech) Reading Processes (Ruddell, 1974) simultaneous processing model multiple components interact to achieve text recognition and comprehension: reader environment (instructional factors, home literacy influences, text difficulty) declarative and procedural knowledge structures (decoding, linguistic, and world knowledge) knowledge use and control (affective, cognitive/text representation, and metacognitive states) knowledge use and control component serves as coordinator of all components as reader plans, monitors, and evaluates performance to achieve goals for reading Substrata-Factor (Singer, 1962) simultaneous processing model perceptual, linguistic, and cognitive factors are utilized in proportion to the task demands or the reader's goals processing accuracy and speed are critical to efficient use of these factors Inferential Processes (Anderson, 1984; van Dijk & Kintsch, 1977) top-down processing model implicit or explicit propositions in text are analyzed microstructures (visual, verbal, and cognitive features) and macrostructures (schemas) are formed to facilitate comprehension supporting evidence provided by studies in which individuals who read a text for which they have no schema are unable to recall the text or answer questions about it Effective Instructional Practices For Reading
Phonics phonemic awareness instruction in preschool, kindergarten, and, if necessary, first grade should be standard the alphabetic principle should be taught in conjunction with or after phonemic awareness (letter names instruction may be delayed so as to avoid confusion) decoding practice should occur in isolated words, in text (the texts should usually include the letter sounds or word patterns being taught), and in writing (e.g., writing to dictation, invented spelling) decoding automaticity must be developed through, for example, repeated reading and timed drills time should be allotted every day for sustained silent reading so students build fluency two traditional approaches to phonics instruction include analytic and synthetic phonics analytic phonics emphasizes decomposition of recognized words and the use of highly decodable texts (e.g., ones that use phonograms) synthetic phonics emphasizes explicit instruction of individual letter-sound associations or larger units and blending Orton-Gillingham programs like Slingerland use VAKT multisensory cues and spelling to dictation direct instruction programs like Reading Mastery (formerly DISTAR) utilize carefully sequenced objectives, scripted lessons, and a special script in which silent letters and vowel sounds are cued contemporary approaches to phonics instruction include spelling-based approaches, analogy-based approaches, and embedded phonics spelling-based approaches (e.g., Word Study, Making Words) focus on categorizing words by spelling patterns that the children are using but confusing analogy-based approaches (e.g., the Benchmark program) focus on teaching anchor words that contain common phonograms and how to use these to decode similar words; it seems that initial letter-sound correspondences must be available to benefit from analogies embedded phonics (e.g., Reading Recovery tutorial lessons) emphasizes decoding instruction in the context of authentic reading and writing activities Reading Comprehension Before Reading set goals for reading, especially ones tied to specific performance expectations (e.g., read more words correctly, answer more questions correctly) activate prior knowledge (develop it if necessary) and organize this knowledge in some format (e.g., a chart) provide advance organizers (e.g., an outline of the content of the passage) preview/predict/verify previewing text involves examining the title, headings and subheadings, illustrations and other graphics, marginal glosses, summaries, review questions, etc.; it could also involve listening to the text or reading it silently before reading it aloud predicting involves making informed guesses about the content based upon prior knowledge and previewing activities; predictions should be recorded verifying involves comparing predictions with the information found in the text introduce key vocabulary and concepts and their definitions and uses in multiple contexts During Reading require repeated readings miscue correction (through word supply with drill at the end of the passage) should focus on errors that disrupt meaning insert questions into text have students use visual imagery encourage students to seek clarifications have children underline or highlight important parts of the passage encourage students to be flexible in their reading rate and attention to detail based on the purposes for reading After Reading have students review and summarize text (may need to break passage into smaller portions) have students use text structure to recall information; this information can be presented in a graphic format teach comprehension strategies such as self-questioning read to students frequently (permits them to be exposed to texts more advanced than they can read) permit students to select their own reading materials from time to time to motivate them to read ...
View Full Document
- Spring '08
- Reading Theories and Instructional Principles, simultaneous processing model