Unformatted text preview: Phonological Awareness Instruction
Gary A. Troia, Ph.D. Michigan State University Key Concepts Phonological awareness is a term describing a group of oral language skills that reflect an explicit awareness of the sound structure of spoken language and the ability to manipulate that structure These oral language skills include rhyming, alliteration, blending, counting, isolation, segmenting, deletion, substitution, and reversal, though the 3 major areas are rhyming, blending, and segmenting Typically developing children between the ages of 2 and 4 are capable of rhyming and alliteration; children between 4 and 6 years of age can count, isolate, blend, and segment; older children can delete, substitute, and reverse Children who perform well on such tasks usually are (or become) good readers, whereas children who perform poorly on them struggle (or will struggle) with word recognition and spelling Phonological awareness performance in kindergarten is the best predictor of reading and spelling achievement in first and second grade Phonemic awareness, the knowledge that words are comprised of individual sounds and the ability to manipulate these sounds, is most directly related to literacy Children who are phonemically aware can grasp the alphabetic principle, the concept that letters more or less correspond to sounds in spoken words Children's early reading and spelling experiences further develop their phonemic awareness About 20% of children, especially those with disabilities, those from low income households, and those from homes in which English is not a native language, do not acquire phonological awareness without explicit instruction Explicit instruction in phonological awareness for children both with and without disabilities often is beneficial in promoting not only their metaphonological competence, but also their graphophonemic knowledge, decoding ability, and spelling proficiency Early Childhood Experiences That Foster Phonological Awareness Reciting fingerplays and nursery rhymes Singing songs and chants with rhyming or alliterative schemes Joint book reading with older children and adults Viewing educational television programming such as Shining Time Station and Between the Lions Exposure to environmental print (e.g., street signs, restaurant logos) Interaction with various forms of print (e.g., menus, recipes, shopping lists, phone books, viewing guides) Key Principles of Instruction
Task Dimensions to Control: Type of phonological awareness Explicitness of awareness Size of phonological unit (i.e., word, syllable, intrasyllabic, phoneme) Number of units Position of unit Phoneme characteristics Word frequency/familiarity Types of Instructional Tasks: Matching Elimination/Oddity Judgment Isolation Simple production (a task that requires a response with a shared segment or a task that requires a complete segmentation or blending of units) Counting Compound production (two-step tasks that involve deletion, substitution, or reversal) Instructional Tips: Make sounds more perceptually salient through exaggerated pronunciation of continuants and iteration (i.e., bouncing) of noncontinuants Use manipulatives whenever possible Use visual cues such as pictures or indicators of number of units whenever possible Model extensively Provide immediate corrective feedback For ELL students, provide phonological awareness instruction in their first language if possible, or at least use phonemes that are shared between first language and English during instruction Caveats: Spontaneous transfer between recognition and production, as well as between skills, is not common Blending training by itself has little concurrent impact on reading achievement unless children already know how to segment Phonemic awareness training must be coupled with instruction in the alphabetic principle to have the most impact on literacy (either sequentially or concurrently) Phoneme preservation scoring appears to be more sensitive to growth In some cases, up to 30% of children in treatment samples who receive intensive instruction in phonological awareness do not make substantial gains Small group instruction appears to be more effective than whole class or individual instruction Recent evidence suggests adding articulatory features to instruction (E.g., LiPS, Linguistic Remedies) may boost effectiveness of training ...
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- Spring '08
- Phoneme, Phonological awareness, Phonological Awareness Instruction