Conceptual Foundation and Critical Care Nursing
Objectives By the end of the session students will be able to: Define principles of critical care and emergency nursing. Describe the scope of practice of critical care and emergency nursing. Identify role of nurse in critical care nursing. Explore holistic and interdisciplinary approach. Identify the standards of healthy work environment in critical care. Psychosocial implications in the care of critically ill patient and family Contemporary issues in critical care area Complementary therapies
History of Critical Care & ICU’s 3 1850s- Florence Nightingale 1923- Dr. Walter opened a special three-bed unit for the more critically ill 1930’s – Dr Martin, introduction of Recovery Rooms 1960 almost all hospitals had a recovery unit with OR WWII & Korean War – shock units and concepts of triage and specialty nursing 1950’s – opening of respiratory units , beginning of Critical Care Units 1958, Dr Max Harry & Dr Hebert opened a four-bed shock ward Collaboration between nurses and physicians 1950’s & 1960’s – CV Disease most common diagnosis 1960’s – 30-40% mortality rate for MI 1965 – 1 st specialized ICU – The Coronary Care Unit Emergence of Specialized ICU’s
ICU, 20 years ago! .
Definitions Critical Care : It is a term used to describe as the care of patients who are extremely ill and whose clinical condition is unstable or potentially unstable Critical Care Unit : It is defined as the unit in which comprehensive care of a critically ill patient which is deemed to recoverable stage is carried out.
Critical Care Now 6 1. Mechanical ventilators are much smaller, more mobile, and more user-friendly. 2. The development of portable ultrasound units. 3. patient management becoming less invasive whenever possible, less interventional, and more humane. 4. Units are generally much less strict and more friendly and welcoming for the patient and family than in the past. 5. Improved communication with patients and their families 6. A multidisciplinary approach 7. In large hospital-wide infection prevention schemes
Critical Care is Provided in: Accident & Emergency Units High Dependency Units Intensive Care Units (ICU) Coronary Care Units (CCU) Recovery Anaesthetic Rooms Operating Theatres
Critical Care Now 8 Nursing shortage Half of patients in ICU’s >65 In US – critical care beds account for 8% of all hospital beds, 20% of patients spends time in a critical care unit GOAL: Provide high quality, holistic care
Principles of Critical Care Nursing 1. Anticipation 2. Early detection and prompt action 3. Collaborative practice 4. Communication 5. Prevention of infection : Nosocomial infection 6.
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- Fall '19