acp33vol4.pdf - Amendment List Amended by No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 i Date Date Incorporated ACP 33 FLIGHT CONTENTS Volume 1 History of

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Amendment List Date Amended by Incorporated No Date 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 i
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CONTENTS ii ISSUED 2000 ACP 33 FLIGHT Volume 1 ................. History of Flight Volume 2 ................. Principles of Flight Volume 3 ................. Propulsion Volume 4 ................ Airframes Volume 4 Airframes Chapter 1 ................ Airframe Design - Introduction Chapter 2 ................ Airframe Design - Structures Chapter 3 ................ Airframe Design - Shape Chapter 4 ................ Materials Chapter 5 ................ Wings Chapter 6 ................ Fuselage and Tail Units Chapter 7 ................ Engine Installation Chapter 8 ................ Undercarriages Chapter 9 ................ Control Chapter 10 .............. Auo-pilot and Related Systems Chapter 11 ............... Aircraft Systems Chapter 12 .............. The Cockpit Instructors’ Guide
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iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Grateful thanks are due to Mr Ray Wilkinson of the Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Automotive Engineering, University of Hertfordshire, who has extensively revised and re-written the text for this training manual.
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AIRFRAME DESIGN - INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1 33.4.1-1 What is an Aircraft Structure? AIRFRAME DESIGN FEA TURES - INTRODUCTION The Structure 1. Airframe Components. A typical aircraft structure is shown in Figure 1-2. An aircraft is made up of a great many parts. This is because it is an extremely complex structure, and each part has its own specific job to do. Even if it were possible to build an aircraft in one single piece, this would not be the best thing to do. Some parts will become damaged, wear out or crack during service and we need to be able to repair or replace them. If a part begins to crack, we need to be sure that the structure will not fail completely before it is found during maintenance inspections, or the aircraft may crash. The airframe is split into four main components: The mainplanes or wings The fuselage or body The tail unit (or foreplanes, for a canard-type aircraft as in Figure 1.1) The undercarriage Fig 1-1 Into the 21st Century-EF 2000
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33.4.1-2 CHAPTER 1 Each of these has its own special functions to carry out, but together they form part of one and the same airframe. Before looking in detail at how they are constructed, we need to understand their main design features, and to appreciate the forces that will be acting on them when the aircraft is in flight. 2. Wings. From your study of Principles of Flight , you will know that to fly in the Earth’s atmosphere at all an aircraft must have wings designed to generate lift from the airflow over them. To take off and climb, the wings must produce more lift than the aircraft’s total weight, which for an aircraft weighing perhaps hundreds of tonnes is no mean task. If the aircraft is to fly in very tight turns, the wings must produce lift equal to perhaps eight times the aircraft weight. For level flight the lift produced must equal the aircraft’s weight, and for landing, where the slowest possible landing speed is required, enough lift must be produced to keep the aircraft flying at low speeds. For this it will normally have special devices added - flaps, leading-edge slats, and so on.
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