MIDTERM REVIEW - Study Guide AOSS 1 Difference in...

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Study Guide: AOSS 1. Difference in timescales and predictability of weather and climate a. Short time scale i. Global Warming 1. Very controversial because it is hard to separate anthropogenic influences from natural ones 2. Greenhouse Effect-natural phenomena that causes the warming of our planet thru natural processes a. CO2, methane and nitrous oxide and CFCs all contribute to it. ii. Ozone Depletion 1. Located in the stratosphere, ozone absorbs most of the Sun’s harmful UV radiation 2. Cause of the ozone hole in Antarctica is because of chlorine (from anthropogenic CFCs) 3. Ground level CFCs are now decreasing, but stratosphere ones are not iii. Tropical deforestation 1. Animals go extinct. Being affected in most tropical areas iv. To figure out which one we should be concerned with is to estimate how long it would take the earth to recover. 1. In this case mass extinction is a HUGE proplem! b. Long time scale (past global issues) i. Glacial-interglacial cycles 1. Earths climate has moved from cold glacial periods to wam interglacial periods like now ii. Mass extinction 1. Our earth was hit by an asteroid. A lot of energy was released and could have potentially caused the extinction of the dinosaurs. However our Earth eventually recovered. iii. Changes in solar luminosity 1. Nuclear Fusion a. Mass is turned into energy b. Sun’s brightness should gradually increase as it depletes its hydrogen fuel iv. Gaia hypothesis 1. Earth is a self regulating system in which the biotas play an integral role. 2. Factors that influence climate a. Sunshine b. Topography c. Atmosphere and ocean currents d. Proximity to oceans e. Atmospheric composition f. biota 3. Forcing versus perturbations a. Forcing
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i. Sustained imposed change on the system 1. Increasing CO2 concentration b. Perturbations i. Temporary, usually small change on the system 1. Volcano erupting and releasing sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere to cause temporarily warming 4. Positive and negative couplings a. Couplings are the links between a system i. Positive 1. Increase causes an increase OR a decrease cause a decrease a. SHOWED BY AN ARROW ii. Negative 1. Increase causes a decrease OR a decrease causes an increase a. SHOWED BY A LINE WITH AN OPEN CIRCLE 5. Positive and negative feedbacks. Which are stable/unstable? How can you tell? a. Feedback Loop is when you have more than one coupling i. Positive 1. UNSTABLE ii. Negative 1. STABLE and turns to turn to equilibrium b. To distinguish between the two just count the number of NEGATIVE couplings.
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