09-11-06 (5) O-Chem Outline

09-11-06 (5) O-Chem Outline - Overview September 11, 2006...

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Overview September 11, 2006 Review Properties of Water Finish Water and pH Start Organic Compounds
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Solute Concentration in Aqueous Solutions Molecular mass (MW) Molar mass Mole (mol) 6.02 X 10 23 molecules (Avogadro’s Number) Molarity (M)
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Dissociation of Water Molecules Water can dissociate into hydronium ions and hydroxide ions H Hydronium ion (H 3 O + ) H Hydroxide ion (OH ) H H H H H H + +
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Dissociation of Water Molecules Water can dissociate into hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions (simplified version) In pure water, the concentration of each ion is 10 -7 M H 2 0 H + + OH -
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Acids and Bases Disrupt balance of [H + ] and [OH - ] Acid: A substance that increases the [H+] of a solution HCl HCl H+ + Cl- *Brackets designate a concentration
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Acids and Bases Disrupt balance of [H + ] and [OH - ] Base A substance that decreases the [H+] of a solution – NH 3 – NH 3 + H+ NH 4
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pH Scale In any aqueous solution at 25°C [H+] [OH-] = 10 -14 M *ALWAYS 10 -14 Neutral solution: both [H+] and [OH-] are 10 -7 M Ex: [H+] -3 + [OH-] ? ?= -11
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pH Scale [H+] and [OH-] can vary by a factor of 100 trillion or more pH scale compresses range pH = - log [H+]
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pH Scale Neutral solution: pH = -log(10 -7 ) *pH is 7 Basic Soluton [H+] = 10 -12 M *pH is 12 Increasingly Acidic [H + ] > [OH ] Basic ] < [OH Neutral [H + ] = [OH ] Oven cleaner 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 pH Scale Battery acid Digestive (stomach)
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2008 for the course BIO 311C taught by Professor Satasivian during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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09-11-06 (5) O-Chem Outline - Overview September 11, 2006...

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