09-13-06 (6) Carb Outline

09-13-06 (6) Carb Outline - Overview Review Finish O-Chem...

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Overview Review Finish O-Chem Start Macromolecules
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Isomers Three types of isomers:
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Structural Isomers Differ in the covalent arrangement of their atoms H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H CO 2 H CH 3 NH 2 C CO 2 H H CH 3 NH 2 X X X X C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C H
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Geometric Isomers H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H CO 2 H CH 3 NH 2 C CO 2 H H CH 3 NH 2 X X X X C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C H Have same covalent partnerships, but differ in their spatial relationships Due to double bond between carbon atoms cis trans
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Enantiomers H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H CO 2 H CH 3 NH 2 C CO 2 H H CH 3 NH 2 X X X X C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C H Molecules that are mirror images of each other Left ‘L’ Right ‘D’ *Little black carbons are asymmetric carbons . They have 4 bonds.
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Enantiomers Enantiomers are important in the pharmaceutical industry L-Dopa (effective against Parkinson’s disease) D-Dopa (biologicall y inactive)
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Functional Groups The parts of molecules involved in chemical reactions Distinctive properties of organic molecules depend on arrangement of carbon skeleton and the molecular components attached to the skeleton.
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Functional Groups ‘Replace’ one or more of the hydrogens bonded to the carbon skeleton Each functional group behaves consistently Number & arrangement of functional groups on a molecule give it its unique properties
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Functional Groups CH 3 OH HO O CH 3 CH 3 OH Estradiol Testosterone Female lion Male lion
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Functional Groups *MEMORIZE* Six functional groups are important in the chemistry of life Hydroxyl Carbonyl Carboxyl Amino Sulfhydryl Phosphate
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Hydroxyl Group (may be written HO ) OH C O Not the same as hydroxide ion. Not charged. Oxygen atom bound to Hydrogen atom. 2 covalent bonds. Found in alcohols. Polar.
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Carbonyl Group (may be written HO ) OH C O O C OH A carbon atom double bound to an oxygen atom. Carbonyl bound to carbon skeleton. Carbon in middle can be bound to 2 other Carbons or 1 Carbon & 1 Hydrogen. Found in Ketones & Aldehydes. Polar. Aldehydes typically end in – al. Alcohols typically end in –ol.
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Carboxyl Group written HO ) OH C O O
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